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PPT – How to write your thesis proposal PowerPoint presentation
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Practice tests are some of the best review tools for AP Psychology. They'll give you insight into proposal writing ppt your areas of weakness and prepare you for the structure and endotoxin assay, content of the real test. In this article, I’ll list all the proposal ppt, official and unofficial practice tests available online and provide advice on how to use them to working management review of literature, get a great score on thesis proposal, the AP test. Essay? It’s best to use official practice tests when preparing for proposal ppt, the exam because you can be sure that the questions are faithful representations of what to expect on test day. There’s a limited supply of released official exams, but you should be able to get enough practice out of them (and you can still supplement with some unofficial tests if necessary, which I’ll discuss in the next section).
These two tests are pretty old, but there haven’t been any major changes to the exam since they were administered. They’re still valid as practice resources: 1994 Official Released AP Psychology Exam. If you’re looking for a bit of extra free-response practice, you can try working on official free-response questions in isolation. Most of them also have accompanying answer keys to help you better understand what the graders are expecting: Those are the only official practice tests I can legally link to, but you may be able to find additional tests online from other sources. Your teacher will also have access to practice testing materials that are not available to the general public.
If you’re looking for more official AP tests, talk to your teacher and dedication, see if he or she can provide you with any extra resources. Proposal Writing Ppt? Unofficial AP Psychology Practice Exams. Unofficial practice tests can also be useful, although you shouldn’t rely on them completely. Dedication Essay? They’ll still test roughly the thesis, same content as the real test, but their questions may be phrased differently and have a slightly higher or lower difficulty level. Endotoxin Assay? Be sure to intersperse official practice tests with these unofficial ones in your studying. This is a free diagnostic test from thesis proposal ppt, Barron’s. Working Management Review? It has the thesis proposal writing, same format as the real AP test, so there are 100 multiple-choice questions followed by two free-response questions. You can choose to take the test in country practice mode (untimed) or timed mode depending on how comfortable you are with the material. Thesis Writing Ppt? The multiple-choice section is scored for you, and answers to free-response questions are available as well. This means that you won’t have to put in quite as much legwork to see where your mistakes happened.
One drawback to the online format is that you can't directly replicate the conditions of the tolerance essay, AP test. Proposal Writing Ppt? It will probably take you less time to dissertation, fill in thesis proposal your answers than it would on a pencil and paper test. Here you can find practice quizzes that cover all the different topics in jobs the course as well as two comprehensive 100-question practice tests. Again, you can only take the tests online, so you won’t necessarily get as much out thesis proposal writing, of the experience. There also aren’t any free-response questions, so you’ll have to look elsewhere (preferably the College Board website) if you want to practice them. Shmoop has a diagnostic test and two full-length practice exams that mimic the content and format of the real AP test (free-response section included). You have to pay for kit lonza, an account eventually, but you can start off with a free trial and cancel before the first payment is due if you want.
The rate for a student account is $24.68 a month. This is just one practice test, but it includes automatic scoring, and thesis ppt, it analyzes your mistakes for you . The test is also timed, so testing conditions are replicated relatively accurately (minus the fact that it’s on the computer). How to Review With AP Psychology Practice Tests. Practice tests can be used throughout the school year and in your final review sessions for the AP test. They are the best way for you to working review of literature, judge how advanced you are in your knowledge of the material. Thesis Proposal Writing? They’ll also help you gain familiarity with the essay, format of the AP test so that you’re not caught off-guard on test day. Here’s some advice on how to use these tests in your studying at different points throughout the thesis writing, year: At this point, you’re just preparing for in-class tests and haven’t learned all the information for the course yet.
You might decide to use practice sites that include focused questions on essay, specific aspects of the curriculum, like this one. Still, the practice tests in this article may be helpful resources. You can sort through the thesis, free-response questions that were asked on previous administrations of the test to find ones that are relevant to what you’ve learned so far. It’s a smart idea to practice free-response questions well ahead of time because they require the most independent knowledge. Most students have a tougher time on this section than on the multiple-choice section because you don't get a list of options that might jog your memory about a certain term or concept.
Guessing isn't a viable option, so it's important to prepare thoroughly. As you head into your second semester, start thinking about prepping for essay, the AP test with full practice exams. You will have learned most of the material by the middle of the second semester, so you'll be able to ppt, use practice tests to judge your skills more accurately. I'd recommend taking your first full-length practice test sometime in dedication March. Ppt? Online tests can be helpful, but make sure you print out some practice tests too. This is the only way to dedication, see whether your time management is on point. When you take a practice test, make sure you treat it seriously so that you can learn from proposal writing ppt, your mistakes. After you finish the test, score it and travel jobs, investigate your incorrect answers.
There are several reasons why you might answer a question incorrectly. It could be due to poor time management, a careless mistake, or a lack of content knowledge. If one of the first two problems is the source of thesis proposal writing, many of your mistakes, you probably need to take more practice tests to get used to the format while learning to read more carefully and pace yourself better. If your mistakes have more to do with content knowledge, you can narrow your focus further by categorizing your wrong answers by subject ( consult the list of topics in this article ). This way, you can primarily study parts of the country risk, course that you struggle with and ppt, avoid wasting time on concepts you already understand. Once you’ve identified your mistakes on the practice test and taken steps to correct them, take another test to check your progress.
Again, make sure you take this test with the same time limits as the essay engineering ethics, real AP test. After you take the second test, repeat the steps of scoring it and proposal ppt, looking through your mistakes. Essay Engineering? Continue this process until you feel fully prepared for the exam. It may be productive to practice free-response questions in ppt isolation between full practice tests if you struggle with that section. The more familiar you are with the way free-response questions are asked and country risk dissertation, what graders expect, the more likely you are to ace the thesis writing ppt, free-response section on the real test in travel writing May. These questions will also help reinforce your understanding of psychological terms because they often ask you to thesis proposal, apply terms to essay, a hypothetical real-life scenario. Keep working out your test-taking muscles until your brain looks like this dude. Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? Essential AP Psychology Practice Testing Tips. In this section, I'll list a few tips that are important to remember while using practice tests to review for AP Psychology.
I said it before, and I’ll say it again: If you want to assess your weak spots accurately, you need to time yourself as though you're taking the real test. You don’t want time pressure to be your downfall after working your butt off to memorize all the assay kit lonza, content. If you can get a parent, sibling, or friend who doesn’t have anything better to do for two hours to be a mock proctor for you, that’s even better! It’s especially funny to list this tip for AP Psychology, but it’s also especially relevant to the way the questions are structured. Writing? You’ll see quite a few questions that seem complex but are actually just a matter of country risk, common sense. Proposal? Try not to second-guess yourself on zero tolerance, these types of questions.
The test isn’t trying to trick you! #3: Be Direct in the Free-Response Section. When some students think about free-response questions, they imagine writing a five paragraph essay. You don't have to do that on this test! All the graders want are the correct answers written in complete sentences.
Forget about intros, conclusions, or any other fluffy stuff you’re tempted to writing ppt, include. Dedication? #4: Put More Faith in Official Test Scores Than Unofficial Ones. It’s tempting to believe that a high score on proposal, an unofficial test is assay, valid, but it can get you into proposal writing ppt trouble. Keep in mind that some unofficial tests will be easier or harder than the real AP test because the questions weren't designed by the College Board. You should always include at capital management review of literature, least one official practice test in your studying so you can compare the difficulty levels and get an accurate reading on your progress. Some tests are LIARS! Use the practice tests in this article as tools to bolster your prep for AP Psychology. Official tests and unofficial tests are both valuable resources, but pay more attention to your scores on official tests when judging your progress and skill level. Thesis Writing? Going over mistakes on practice tests will help you understand where your weaknesses lie and how you can fix them.
If you take multiple practice tests, analyze your mistakes, and plan out your studying responsibly, you can expect high scores on the AP test and any in-class tests you take throughout the year. Are you looking for more guidance in preparing for this test? Read my complete AP Psychology study guide here! Review books can also be helpful study resources. If you're not sure which one to zero, get, take a look at this list of the thesis writing, best AP Psychology books. What will a high score on an AP test really mean for you in essay college? Find out how AP classes can lead to college credits. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
We've written a guide for each test about the thesis, top 5 strategies you must be using to assay, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Samantha is a blog content writer for PrepScholar. Thesis Writing? Her goal is to help students adopt a less stressful view of standardized testing and other academic challenges through her articles.
Samantha is also passionate about country risk, art and graduated with honors from Dartmouth College as a Studio Art major in 2014. Writing? In high school, she earned a 2400 on the SAT, 5's on all seven of her AP tests, and was named a National Merit Scholar. You should definitely follow us on social media. Travel? You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Thesis Writing Ppt? Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to travel jobs, 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for proposal writing ppt, Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.
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RESUME BUKU ILMU PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. TUGAS RESUME BUKU ILMU PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Oleh : Abdul Hamid. RUANG LINGKUP PEMBAHASAN. Buku ini terbit dengan tebal buku 142 halaman dan terdiri dari 6 bab yang masing-masing bab saling terkait sehingga menjadikan buku ini mudah dipelajari. Writing? Bab-bab yang terdapat dalam buku “Ilmu Pendidikan Islam” ini yaitu: BAB I : PERKEMBANGAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Pendahuluan Perkembangan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam Pengertian dan Batasan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam Tujuan Mempelajari Ilmu Pendidikan Islam Urgensi Ilmu Pendidikan Islam Fungsi Ilmu Pendidikan Islam. BAB II : KONSEP DASAR PENDIDIKAN ISLAM.
Pendahuluan Pengertian Pendidikan Islam Sumber dan Dasar pendidikan Islam Tujuan Pendidikan islam Fungsi Pendidikan Islam Tanggung Jawab dan Lingkungan Pendidikan Islam. BAB III : GURU DAN SERTIFIKASI. Pendahuluan Guru dalam Pandangan Pendidikan Islam Kompetensi Guru dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar Membangun Guru yang Profesionalisme Sertifikasi Guru dalam mewujudkan Profesionalisme. BAB IV : KURIKULUM ILMU PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Pendahuluan Pengertian Kurikulum Pendidikan Islam Prinsip Pengembangan Kurikulum Pendidikan Islam Karakteristik 2urikulum Pendidikan Islam Reorientasi Kurikulum Pendidikan Islam Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi. BAB V : METODE PEMBELAJARAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Pendahuluan Pengertian Metode Pmbelajaran Manfaat Metode Pembelajaran Metode-metode Pembelajaran Metode Pembelajaran Tuntas. BAB VI : EVALUASI DALAM PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Pengertian Evaluasi Tujuan dan Fungsi Evaluasi Pendidikan Islam Prinsip-prinsip Evaluasi Sasaran Evaluasi Jenis-jenis Evaluasi Prosedur Evaluasi Syarat-syarat Evaluasi. Untuk lebih jelasnya marilah kita pelajari bab demi bab.
PERKEMBANGAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Perkembangan pendidikan dewasa ini mengalami krisis, disebabkan ada dua orientasi yang berbeda yakni pendidikan umum dan pendidikan Islam. Writing? Namun dalam Islam universal dan tidak mengenal dikonomi ilmu pengetahuan. Dalam situasi kritis para ilmuwan Islam terus mencari solusi dari problematika pendidikan. Ppt? Salah satu usahanya ialah lahirnya Konsep pendidikan Pendidikan Islam yang mandiri, dengan harapan mampu melahirkan konsep yang ideal dan realistic serta dapat memenuhi kebutuhan sesuai dengan tuntutan zaman dalam dunia pendidikan Islam.
B. Travel? Perkembangan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Proposal? (h.2-5) Sebenarnya sejak adanya Fakultas Tarbiyah IAIN Pendidikan Islam sudah dijadikan salah satu bahan kajian, namun pengembangan serius terhadap Ilmu Pendidikan Islam baru dijadikan Mata Kuliah dalam kurikulum Fakultas Tarbiyah Jurusan Pendidik sejak Bulan Oktober 1993 setelah diadakan Musyawarah Nasional Ilmu Pendidikan Islam di Ciawi Bogor dmulaiian Agama Islam. Ethics? Kemudian pada Tahun 1995 munculah Jurusan Kependidikan Islam (KI) lengkap dengan silabusnya. Menurut Ahmad Tafsir pengembangan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam mulai serius dikembangan sejak Oktober 1993, bahkan sepanjang tahun 1994 – 1996 banyak sekali dilakukan seminar nasional yang membicarakan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Ppt? Hasilnya dapat tersusun sebuak buku yang diproduk oleh Asosiasi Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (ASPI) yang membicarakan landasan filosofis, paradigm, metodologi, model penelitian dan peta penelitian. Assay Kit Lonza? Kesemuanya itu digunakan dalam pengembangan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam. Ppt? (Priatna 2004:39). Perkembangan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam Menurut Nung Muhajir adalah filsafat yang digunakan haruslah filsafat yang mengakui secara ekplisit kebenaran etik yang diwujudkan berupa nilai. Travel Writing Jobs? Karena filsafat seperti ini memuat idalisme, realism, khususnya realism metafisik (Tafsir 1994:23).
Disamping itu perlu ada paradigm yang dapat digunakan dengan cara mengambil teori yang ada lantas dikonultasikan kepada wahyu Tuhan , atau diistilahkan dengan “Induksi konsultasi” (Tafsir 1994:24-25). Cara Islamisasi Ilmu Pendidikan Barat dengan menggunakan realism-metafisik dan paradigm induksi konsultasi dengan memilih tiga cara yaitu : Merevisi teori yang sudah ada. Ppt? Mengganti teori lama yang dianggap tidak lagi sesuai dengan kondisi sekarang dengan teori baru. Capital Management? Membuat teori baru. Ada dua cara pengembangan Ilmu pendidikan Islam yakni : C. Writing Ppt? Pengertian dan Batasan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam. Travel Writing Jobs? (h.5-7)
Ilmu pendidikan Islam merupakan Ilmu Pengetahuan praktis; Ilmu Pengetahuan rohani. Proposal Ppt? Batasan Ilmu pendidikan Islam adalah ilmu yang mengkaji pandangan Islam tentang pendidikan dengan menafsirkan nilai-nilai yang terkandung dalam ajaran Islam dan mengkomunikasikan secara timbale balik dengan fenomena sosialdalam situasi pendidikan kontemporer. D. Risk Dissertation? Tujuan Mempelajari Ilmu Pendidikan Islam (h.7) Tujuan mempelajari Ilmu Pendidikan Islam antara lain : Untuk mengetahui problema-problema dan isu-isu baru komponen Untuk merekontruksi Sistem Pendidikan Islam dengan paradigm baru yang sesuai dengan ajaran Islam. Thesis Proposal? Untuk merefleksikan pertautan nilai-nilai transcendental Ilahi dengan realitas kependidikan. Risk Dissertation? Untuk mencerahkan situasi Ilmu Pendidikan Islam. E. Thesis Writing? Urgensi Ilmu Pendidikan Islam (h.8) Urgensi Ilmu Pendidikan Islam antara lain : Sebagai usaha untuk membentuk pribadi manusia. Working Of Literature? Merupakan proses ikhtiar secara paedagogis untuk mengembangkan hiduo anak didik ke arah kedewasaan/ kematangan. Proposal Ppt? Mempunyai arti fungsional dan actual dalam diri manusia untuk tercapainya tujuan hidup bahagia dunia dan akherat. F. Endotoxin Assay Kit Lonza? Fungsi Ilmu Pendidikan Islam (h.9)
Ilmu Pendidikan Islam mempunyai fungsi, yaitu : Ingin melakukan pembuktian terhadap teori-teori kependidikan Islam agar menjadi kenyataan. Ppt? Memberikan informasi tentang pelaksanaan pendidikan dalam segala aspeknya bagi pengembangan Ilmu Pendidikan Islam. Risk Dissertation? Menjadi pengoreksi kekurangan teori-teori ilmu Pendidikan Islam. KONSEP DASAR PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Islam sebagai agama menempatkan pendidikan dalam posisi yang sangat vital.
Pernyataan ini didukung dengan lima ayat pertama yang diwahyukan Allah SWT dalam Surat Al ‘laq. Thesis Ppt? Hal ini diakui Malik Fajar bahwa hubungan Islam dengan pendidikan bagaikan dua keping mata sisi uang artinya, Islam dan pendidikan mempunyai hubungan filosofis yang sangat mendasar, baik secara ontologism, efistimonologi maupun aksiologi (Fajar 1999:27). Islam menganjurkan dan mendorong mencari ilmu bahkan dikatakan bahwa semua hasil ilmu pengetahuan modern telah ada dalam al-Qur’an. Kit Lonza? Untuk membekali ilmu bagi umat Islam yang efekif melalui pendidikan, baik formal maupun non formal (Isna 2001:64). Kursyid Ahmad, dan Fazlur Rahman berpendapat bahwa pembaharuan dalam bentuk apapun harus melalui pendidikan. Writing? Kita tidak bisa mencapai suatu cita-cita nasional kecuali dengan pendidikan (Abidin 1991:17), hanya saja , pendidikan harus mampu mendorong terciptanya daya pikir, sehingga melahirkan manusia yang dinamis. Dissertation? Karena itu, umat Islam pada masa Klasik patut dijadikan motivasi untuk memberikan arah di bidang pendidikan masa sekarang dan yang akan datang karena pendidikan di masa tersebut mampu memberikan dorongan terwujudnya masa keemasan Islam (Sawito 1995:7). Berdasarkan rujukan dari aspek tersebut, maka konsep tentang pendidikan dapat disusun dengan hakikat pendidikan menurut ajaran Islam. Ppt? Sebab keduanya tak mungkin dapat dipisahkan.
Untuk menggambarkan hal itu, berikut dijelaskan diskursus pendidikan Islam. B. Dissertation? Pengertian Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? (h.15-24) Ada tiga istilah yang umn.um yang digunakan dalam Pendidikan Islam yakni, al-t’lim, al-tarbiyah dan al-ta’dib . Country Risk Dissertation? Ketiga makna tersebut mempunyai pengertian tersendiri dalam pendidik. Terma al-tarbiyah, sangat luas cakupannya meliputi semua aspek pendidikan, yaitu aspek kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotor, baik dari aspek jasmani maupun rohani, secara harmonis dan integral. Thesis Proposal Writing? Sehingga esesnsi tarbiyah mengandung makna yaitu proses aktualisasi sesuatu yang dilakukan secara bertahap dan terencana sampai pada batas kesempurnaan (kedewasaan). Terma ta’lim digunakan oleh Abdul Fatah Jalal menjelaskan bahwa ta’lim secara implicit juga menanamkan aspek afektif, karena pengetian ta’lim sangat ditekankan pada prilaku yang baik (Nizar 2001:86). Ibnu Mansur dalam bukunya Lisan al ‘arab Juz 9, mengemukakan bahwa ta’lim adalah pengajaran yang bersifat pemberian, penyampaian, pengertian, pengetahuan serta keterampilan. Jobs? Penunjukan kata ta’lim pendidikan sesuai dengan Firman Allah QS. Proposal Writing Ppt? Albaqoroh: 31.
Selanjutnya tokoh yang memakai istilah ta’dib adalah Syeh Naquib a-Attas dengan memeberikan rujukan mengenai konsep pendidikan dengan memakai istilah ta’dib yang berarti secara bahasa merupakan bentuk masdar dari kata addaba yang berarti member adab, mendidik (Yunus 1972:37). Terlepas dari batasan makna yang tepat dari ketiga istilah diatas, maka dapat ditarik benang merah bahwa tabiyah merupakan upaya sadar akan pemeliharaan, pengembangan seluruh potensi diri manusia, secara fitrahna dan perlindungan menyeluruh terhadap hak-hak kemanusiannya. Sementara kata ta’lim mengesankan proses pemberian ilmu pengetahuan dan penyadaran fitrah serta tugas-tugas nyata. Dedication Essay? Sedangkan ta’dib mengesankan proses pembinaan kepribadian dan sikap moral (afektif) dan etika dalam kehidupan (Djuwaeli 1998:4). Penggunaan istilah tarbiyah mewakili untuk memaknai Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Writing Ppt? Hal ini karena muatan maknanya lebih luas yang meliputi aspek jasmani, akal, daya kreasi dan social kemasyarakatan manusia aspek yang tidak bisa dipisahkan dalam proses pendidikan islam (Aziz dan Majid tt: 59. Secara terminology para pakar telah mendefinisikan Pendidikan Islam berbeda-beda sesuai dengan sudut pandang mereka. Essay? Namun dapat disimpulkan bahwa Pendidikan Islam adalah suatu proses yang sangat konfrehensif, disusun secara sistimatis, terencana dalam upaya mengembangkan potensi yang ada pada diri anak didik secara optimal, untuk menjlankan tugas ilahiyah yang didasarkan dengan bingkaian ajaran Islam pada semua aspek kehidupan. C. Proposal? Sumber dan Dasar pendidikan Islam. Country? (h.24-38) Kata Dasar dalam Bahasa (Arab; Asas , Inggris; foundation, Perancis, Latin; fundamentum) . Thesis Proposal Writing? Secara etimologi berarti; alas, fundamen, pokok atau pangkal sesuatu pendapat, ajaran, aturan. Essay? (Tim Penyusun Kamus Pusat Pendidikan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Depdikbud, 1991:211). Secara terminology dasar mengandung arti sebagai sumber adanya sesuatu dan proposisi paling umum dan makna yang paling luas yang dijadikan sumber ilmu pengetahuan, ajaran, atau hukum. Proposal Writing? (Aly 1999:19-30)
Sumber Pendidikan Islam ada dua: pertama , sumber Ilahi yang meliputi al-Qur’an, Hadits, dan alam semesta sebagai ayat kauniyah yang perlu ditafsirkan kembali. Risk? Kedua , sumber insaniyah yaitu lewat proses ijtihad manusia dari fenomena yang muncul dari kajian terhadap sumber Ilahi yang masih bersifat global. Writing Ppt? (Nizar 2001:95). Risk Dissertation? Hasan Langulung menambahkan yang ketiga yaitu Ijtihad. Dalam meletakan Ijtihad sebagai sumber dasar Pendidikan Islam, ada dua pendapat: pertama , tidak menjadikannya sebagai sumber dasar Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Writing Ppt? Kedua , meletakkan ijtihad sebagai sumber dasar Pendidikan Islam. D. Assay? Tujuan Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Ppt? (h. Tolerance Essay? 39-45) Tujuan pendidikan Islam tidak lepas kaitannya dengan eksistensi hidup manusia sebagai khalifah Allah SWT di muka bumi ini. Thesis Writing Ppt? Menurut Abdurrahman an-Nawawi ada empat tujuan umumnya yaitu : Pendidikan Akal dan persiapan pikiran. Country Risk Dissertation? Menumbuhkan potensi-potensi dan bakat-bakat asal pada anak didik. Thesis? Menaruh perhatian pada kekuatan dan potensi generasi muda dan mendidik mereka sebaik-baiknya.
Berusaha untuk menyeimbangkan segala kekuatan dan kesedian-kesediaan manusia (Asyaf 1986:418-419). Tujuan Pendidikan Islam menurut hasil keputusan kongres pendidikan Islam sedunia tahun 1980 di Islamabad yaitu upaya untuk menumbuhkan kepribadian manusia yang menyeluruh secara seimbang, melalui latihan jiwa, intelek, diri manusia yang rasional, perasaan dan indra. Oleh karena itu, tujuan pendidikan Islam mempunyai cakupan yang sangat luas baik secara material maupun sacara spiritual. Dedication Essay? Pendidikan Islam tidak hanya melihat bahwa pendidikan sebagai upaya mencerdaskan semata (Pendidikan Intelek, kecerdasan), melainkan sejalan dengan konsep Islam tentang manusia dan hakikat eksistensinya. Ppt? Bahkan pendidikan Islam berupaya menumbuhkan pemahaman dan kesadaran bahwa manusia itu sama di depan Allah. Risk? Perbedaannya adalah kadar ketaqwaannya, sebagai bentuk perbedaan secara kualitatif (Karim 1991 :32). Fungsi Pendidikan Islam menurut Khursid Ahmad sebagaimana dikutif Ramayulis (1990:19-20) dengan membagi kepada dua fungsi pendidikan Islam yakni : Alat untuk memelihara, memperluas dan menghubungkan tingkat-tingkat kebudayaan, nilai-nilai tradisi dan social serta ide-ide masyarakat dan negara. Writing Ppt? Alat untuk mengadakan perubahan, inovasi dan perkembangan yang secara garis besarnya mencakaup ilmu pengetahuan serta keterampilan yang baru ditemukan dan melatih tenaga-tenaga manusia yang produktif untuk menemukan perubahan social dan kemampuan ekonomi secara seimbang.
Dengan demikian fungsi pendidikan Islam dapat mengembangkan dan mengarahkan manusia agar mampu mengembangkan amanah dari Allah, yakni menjalankan tugas-tugas hidupnya di muka bumi ini, baik sebagai hamba Allah yang harus tunduk dan taat terhadap segala aturan maupun sebagai khalifah Allah di muka bumi ini. Kit Lonza? Yang menyangkut tugas kholifah terhadap diri sendiri, rumah tangga, masyarakat serta alam sekitarnya (Muhaimin 2002:24). Pendidikan Islam bukan sekedar transfer of writing knowledge ataupun transfer of zero tolerance essay training , tetapi sebuah system yang ditata diatas pondasi keimanan dan keshalihan yang terkait langsung dengan tuhannya (Ahmadi 1987:10). Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? Dalam hal ini, lembaga pendidikan Islam dituntut profesionalisme untuk mampu mentrsfer sejumlah keterampilan dengan warna dan nilai religious yang bermutu dan disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan lapangan kerja yang ada, sehingga diharapkan output -nya memiliki keterampilan yang dapat diandalkan dan direalisasikan secara nyata. F. Endotoxin Assay Kit Lonza? Tanggung Jawab dan Lingkungan Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Proposal? (h.49-60) Tanggung Jawab pendidikan Islam agar berkembang harus diserahkan kepada keluarga, sekolah dan masyarakat. Dissertation? Ketiga institusi ini harus mampu melaksanakan peran dan fungsinya sebagai srana yang memberikan motivasi, fasilitas, educative, wahana pengembangan yang ada pada diri peserta didik dan mengarahkan untuk mampu bernilai efektif dan efisien sesuai dengan perkembangan dan kebutuhan zamannya, serta memberikan bimbingan dan perhatian yang serius terhadap kebutuhan moral-spiritual peserta didiknya. Bimbingan tersebut meliputi pengembangan potensi peserta didik, tranformasi ilmu pengetahuan dan kecakapan lainnya, dan membangkitkan motif-motif yang ada seoptimal mungkin (Nawawi 1989:8). Proposal? Disamping itu Syahminan Zaini (1996:136) menambahkan dari ketiga komponen itu yakni tanggung jawab terhadap diri sendiri.
GURU DAN SERTIFIKASI. Guru adalah actor utama dalam praksis pendidikan. Writing? Guru adalah salah satu komponen dalam proses belajar mengajar yang ikut berperan dalam usaha pembentukan sumber daya manusia yang potensial di bidang pembangunan. Writing Ppt? Kenyataan yang terjadi dalam dunia pendidikan adalah rendahnya kualitas dan kualifikasi guru dalam proses belajar mengajar, hal ini terjadi pada pendidikan dasar hingga pendidikan tinggi. Dedication? Dalam menghadapi persaingan globalisasi, guru dituntut bersaing dengan pekerja professional lainnya. Problematika yang dihadapi pendidikan Islam saat ini adalah masih banyaknya para guru yang mengajar di sekolah-sekolah tidak berdasarkan pada kualifikasi dan kompetensi dasar, atau bidang keahlian pada mata pelajaran yang diajarkan, karena dalam proses pembelajaran mereka hanya menekankan pada materi pelajaran sementara teknik dan metode mengajar cenderung diabaikan, sehingga akhirnya kegiatan belajar mengajar menjadi vakum dan monoton sehingga guru kehabisan bahan materi pelajaran dan siswa tidak memiliki kemampuan atau keterampilan yang sangat diharapkan.
B. Writing? Guru dalam Pandangan Pendidikan Islam. Ethics? (h.63-65) Guru dalam leteratu kependidikan Islam biasa disebut sebagai ustadz, mu’alim, murabby, mursyid, mudarris dan mu’addib (Muhaimin 2003:209). Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? Dari hasil telaahan terhadap istilah-istilah dan makna guru ditemukan bahwa guru adalah orang yang memiliki karakteristik sebagai berikut : Mempunyai komitmen terhadap profeisonalitas, yakni melekat pada dirinya sikap dedikatif. Dedication Essay? Mempunyai komitmen terhadap mutu proses dan hasil kerja, serta sikap continuous improvement . Thesis? Mengusai ilmu dan mampu mengembangkan serta menjelaskan fungsinya dalam kehidupan, menjelaskan dimensi teoritis dan prktisnya, atau sekaligus melakukan transfer ilmu pengetahuan , internalisasi serta amaliah (implementasi). Assay? Mendidik dan menyiapkan peserta didik agar mampu berkreasi, serta mampu mengatur, memelihara hasil kreasinya untuk tidak menimbulkan malapetaka bagi dirinya, masyarakat, alam sekitarnya. Proposal? Mampu menjadi model atau sentral identifikasi diri, atau menjadi pusat panutan, teladan dan konsultan bagi peserta didiknya. Jobs? Memiliki kepekaan intelektual dan informasi, serta memperbaharui pengetahuan dan keahlian secara berkelanjutan, dan berusaha mencerdaskan peserta didiknya, memberantas kebodohan serta melatih keterampilan sesuai dengan bakat, minat kemampuannya. Proposal Writing? Mampu bertanggung jawab dalam membangun peradaban yang berkualitas di masa depan. C. Travel Writing? Kompetensi Guru dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar. Proposal Writing Ppt? (h.65-72)
Tugas pokok seorang guru adalah mengajar dan mendidik. Country Risk Dissertation? Mengajar mengacu pada pemberian pengetahuan dan melatih keterampilan dalam melakukan sesuatu sedangkan mendidik mengacu pada upaya membina kepribadian dan karakter anak didik dengan nilai-nilai tertentu, sehingga nilai-nilai tersebut mewarnai kehidupannya dalam bentuk prilaku dan pola hidup sebagai manusia yang berakhlak, tindakan dan fungsi seorang guru yang harus dilakukan sebagai berikut : Sebelum Guru mengajar Mempersiapkan bahan yang mau diajarkan Mempersiapkan alat-alat peraga/ praktikum yang akan digunakan Mempersiapkan pertanyaan dan arahan untuk merangsang siswa aktif belajar Mempelajari keteladanan siswa, mengetahi kelemahan dan kelebihan siswa Mempelajari pengetahuan awal siswa Selama Proses Pembelajaran Mengajak siswa aktif belajar Siswa dibiarkan bertanya Menggunakan metode ilmiah dalam proses penemuan Mengikuti pikiran dan gagasan siswa Menggunakan variasi metode pembelajaran Mengadakan praktikum terpimpin maupun bebas. Sesudah Proses Pembelajaran Guru memberikan PR dan mengumpulkan serta mengoreksinya. Thesis Proposal Writing? Memberikan tugas lain untuk pendalaman Tes yang membuat siswa berpikir, bukan hapalan Sikap yang Perlu dipunyai Guru Siswa dianggap bukan tabula rasa, tetapi subyek yang sudah tahu sesuatu Model kelas, siswa aktif, guru menyertai Bila ditanyasiswa yang tidak bisa menjawab tidak usah marah dan mencerca Menyediakan ruang tanya jawab dan diskusi Guru dan siswa aling belajar Yang penting bukan bahan selesai, tetapi siswa belajar untuk beajar sendiri Memberikan ruang siswa untuk boleh bersalah Hubungan guru-siswa dialogis Pengetahuan yang luas dan mendalam Mengerti kontek bahan yang mau diajarkan. Berdasarkan kenyataan tersebut, maka fungsi guru mengalami perubahan dan pengembangan. Writing? Guru dapat berfungsi sebagai motivator, dinamisator, evaluator dan justifikator yang menilai dan memberi catatan , tambahan, pembenaran dan sebagainya terhadap hasil temuan siswa. D. Thesis Ppt? Membangun Guru yang Profesionalisme. Tolerance Essay? (h.72-78) Guru adalah pekerjaan professional. Thesis? Oleh karena itu guru sebagai pelaku utama pendidikan merupakan pendidik profesional (Sukamadinata 1997:191).
Wolmer dan Mills mengemukakan bahwa pekerjaan yang dikatakan profesionalisme sebagai berikut : Memiliki kualitas ilmu yang mendalam yang mencakup pada pengetahuan umum yang luas. Endotoxin Assay? Memiliki keakhlian khusus yang mendalam disamping memperoleh dukungan masyarakat dan pengesahan serta perlindungan hukum. Ciri khusus untuk profesi seorang guru dalam garis besarnya ada tiga yaitu : Seorang guru yang professional harus menguasai bidang ilmu pengetahuan yang diajarkannya dengan baik. Proposal Writing? Seorang guru yang professional harus memiliki kemampuan menyampaikannya atau mengajarkan ilmu yang dimiliki kepada murid-muridnya secara efektif dan efisien. Jobs? Seorang guru yang professional harus berpegang teguh pada kode etik professional.
Kode etik ini lebih ditekankan pada perlunya memilki akhlaknya yang mulia. Profesionalisme guru dibangun melalui penguasaan kompetensi-kompetensi yang secara nyata diperlukan dalam menyelesaikan pekerjaannya sebagai guru.”Kompetensi-kompetensi penting jabatan guru tersebut adalah kompetensi bidang subtansi atau bidang studi, kompetensi bidang pembelajaran, kompetensi bidang pendidikan nilai dan bimbingan serta kompetensi bidang hubungan dan pelayanan/pengabdian masyarakat. Thesis Writing Ppt? Pengembangan profesionalisme guru meliputi Peningkatan kompetensi, peningkatan kinerja (performance) dan kesejahteraannya. Essay? Guru sebagai pofesional dituntuk untuk senantiasa meningkatkan kemampuan wawasan dan kreativitasnya masing-masing yang saling mempengaruhi, merumuskan beberapa kompetensi atau kemampuan yang sesuai seperti kompetensi kepribadian, bidang studi dan pendidikan dan pengajaran (Sanaky 2 Mei 2005). E. Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? Sertifikasi Guru dalam mewujudkan Profesionalisme. Essay? (78-82) Sertifikasi guru merupakan bentuk perhatian pemerintah dalam upaya membangun profesionalsme sang guru dan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraannya yang terus terpinggirkan. Writing? Untuk mewujudkan gagasan tersebut, tampaknya pemerintah memandang perlu pembentukan sebuah badan independen profesi guru yang menilai profesionalsme guru. Badan tersebut, nantinya akan mengeluarkan sertifikat bagi para guru yang dinilai memiliki kompetensi atau memenuhi persyaratan sebagai profesi guru. Dalam Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 2005 tentang guru dan dosen, dikemukakan bahwa sertifikasi adalah proses pemberian sertifikat pendidik untuk guru dan dosen.
Sedangkan sertifikat pendidik adalah bukti formal sebagai pengakuan yang diberikan kepada guru dan dosen sebagi tenaga professional. Tujuan sertifikasi guru adalah : Melindungi profesi pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan Melindungi masyarakat dari praktek-praktek yang tidak kompeten, sehingga merusak citra pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan, Membantu dan melindungilembaga penyelenggara pendidik, dengan menyediakan rambu-rambu dan instrument untuk melakukan seleksi terhadap pelamar yang kompeten Membangun citra masyarakatterhadap profesi pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan Memberi solusi dalam rangka meningkatkan mutu pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan (Mulyasa 2007:35). Dengan adanya sertifikasi guru, para guru dituntut harus siap memperbaiki dan meningkatkan mutu kinerjanya agar memilki kompetensi yang optimal dalam usaha membimbing siswa agar siap menghadapi kenyataan hidup dan bahkan mampu memberikan contoh, tauladan bagi siswa, memiliki pribadi dan penampilan yang menarik, mengesankan dan menjadikan dambaansetiap orang. KURIKULUM ILMU PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Kurikulum merupakan inti dari sekolah yang ditawarkan pada public, dengan dukungan sember daya manusianya. Working Capital Management? Kurikulum berfungsi sebagai alat untuk mencapai pendidikannya, dalam kaitannya sebagai alat untuk mencapai tujuan, maka kurikulum harus memiliki dua sifat, yaitu anticipatory dan refortorial . Thesis? Hal ini berarti kurikulum harus dapat meramalkan kejadian di masa mendatang. Dedication? Bahkan kurikulum boleh dikata sebagai jantungnya pendidikan, karena dengan kurikulum sekolah dapat menggambarkan dan merumuskan kualifikasi dan kompetensi outcome dari program pendidikannya, dan dengan kurikulum pulalah, sekolah merancang upaya-upaya untuk mencapai kompetensi. B. Thesis? Pengertian Kurikulum Pendidikan Islam. Dedication? (h. Proposal Writing Ppt? 84-89)
Kurikulum dalam pendidikan Islam di kenal dengan kata “Manhaj” yang berarti jalan yang terang yang dilalui oleh pendidik bersama anak didiknya untuk mengembangkan pengetahuan, keterampilan dan sikap peserta didik (Nasution 1993:9) Dari pengertian yang sempit , kurikulum merupakan seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan tentang isi dan bahan pelajaran serta cara yang digunakan sebagai pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan belajar mengajar di sekolah Dalam pengertian yang lebih luas, kurikulum merupakan segala kegiatan yang dirancang oleh lembaga pendidikan untuk disajikan kepada peserta didik guna mencapai tujuan pendidikan (Muhaimin 2003:182-183). Kurikulum mempunyai empat unsure atau aspek utama, yaitu : Tujuan dan obyektif yang ingin dicapai oleh pendidikan. Writing? Pengetahuan dan Informasi, data. Proposal Ppt? Aktivitas, dan pengalaman yang membentuk kurikulum itu. Capital Management? Metode atau cara mengajar yang digunakan oleh guru untuk mengajarkan dan mendorong murid belajar dan membawa mereka kea rah yang dikehendaki oleh kurikulum. Thesis Ppt? Metode atau cara mengajar yang digunakan dalam mengukur dan menilaikurikulum serta hasil pembelajaran pendidikan yang dirancang dalam kurikulum (Langulung : 241) Untuk itu, pengislaman kurikulum atau dalam istilah lain penerapan nilai Islam dalam kurikulum harus mencakup empat unsure diatas, dalam rangka konsepsi (taswwur) Islam. C. Zero Tolerance Essay? Prinsip Pengembangan Kurikulum Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? (h. Working Review? 90-95)
Prinsip-prinsip yang menjadi dasar kurikulum pendidikan Islam menurut Al-Syaibany adalah : Pertautan yang sempurna dengan agama, termasuk ajaran dan nilai-nialainya. Thesis Ppt? Prinsip menyeluruh (universal) pada tujuan-tujuan dan kandungan-kandungan kurikulum. Writing Jobs? Keseimbangan yang relative antara tujuan dan kandungan-kandungan kurikulum. Thesis Proposal Ppt? Berkaitan dengan bakat, minat, kemampuan-kemampuan dan kebutuhan peserta didik. Dedication? Pemeliharaan perbedaan-perbedaan individu diantara peserta didik dalam bakat-bakat, minat, kemampuan-kemampuan dan kebutuhan-kebutuhan, dan masalah-maslahnya. Proposal? Prinsip perkembangan dan perubahan. Zero Essay? Prinsip pertautan antara mata pelajaran, pengalaman-pengalaman dan aktivitas yang terkandung dalam kurikulum.
D. Thesis Proposal? Karakteristik Kurikulum Pendidikan Islam. Country Dissertation? (h. Proposal Writing? 95-96) Karakteristik kurikulum pendidikan Islam adalah : Islam menolak dualism system kurikulum dan sekularisme. Risk Dissertation? Menonjolkan tujuan agama dan akhlak pada berbagai tujuan. Ppt? Meluasnya perhatian dan menyeluruhnya kandungan-kandungannya.
Ciri-ciri keseimbangan yang relative diantara kandungan-kandungan kurikulum dari ilmu-ilmu dan seni atau kemestian-kemestian. Country Risk Dissertation? Kecenderungan pada seni-halus, aktivitas pendidikan, jasmani dan pengetahuan teknik, latihan kejuruan, bahasa-bahasa asing, sekalipun atas dasar perseorangan dan juga bagi mereka yang memiliki kesediaan dan bakat bagi perkara-perkra ini dan mempunyai keinginan untuk mempelajari dan melatih diri dalam perkara tersebut. E. Thesis Ppt? Reorientasi Kurikulum Pendidikan Islam. Dedication? (h. Proposal? 96-100) Orientasi kurikulum pendidikan Islam yaitu : Pendidikan Islam kurikulumnya harus didesain untuk integrasikan dengan keseluruhan proses maupun institusi pendidikan lain. Essay Engineering? Pendidikan Islam harus mampu melakukan internalisasi nilai-nilai dan norma keislaman yang fungsional secara normal untuk mengembangkan keseluruhan system social budaya. Thesis Ppt? Pembentukan wawasan ijtihadiyah secara aktif sehingga mampu menjawab tuntutan masa depan (Sanaky 2003:170) F. Risk? Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi. Proposal Writing Ppt? (h. Capital Management Review? 100-104) Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK) dapat diartikan suatu konsep kurikulum yang menekankan pada pengembangan kemampuan melakukan (kompetensi) tugas-tugas dengan standar ferformance tertentu, sehingga hasilnya dapat dirasakan oleh peserta didik, berupa penguasaan terhadap seperangkat kompetensi tertentu (Mulyasa 2003:39). Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi dapat diorientasikan pada tiga hal dimana peserta didik dapat menguasainya : Seperangkat pengetahuan, keterampilan, sikap dan wawasan, serta penerapannya untuk memenuhi kualitas sesuai dengan criteria atau tujuan pembelajaran.
Penguasaan ilmu pengetahuan dan keterampilan , keahlian berkarya, sikap dan prilaku berkarya dan caraberkehidupan di masyarakat sesuai dengan profesinya. Proposal Writing? Didasarkan pada pengembangan kemampuan dan kepribadian yang oftimal. Dengan demikian desain program kurikulum pendidikan Islam diharapkan mampu menghantarkan peserta didik untuk dapat memiliki lima kompetensi dasar yaitu kompetensi Islamiyah,knowledge, skills, Ability, kompetensi social-kultur. METODE PEMBELAJARAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Model pembelajaran yang semakin berkembang di abad 21 ini, khususnya di Indonesia dengan penerapan kurikulum berbasis kompetensi, maka beragam model pembelajaran yang diaplikasikan oleh guru sebuah keniscayaan. Zero Essay? Hal ini bertujuan untuk mempercepat penguasaan kompetensi oleh peserta didik setelah mempelajari suatu mata pelajaran.
Untuk itu diperlukan berbagai model pembelajaran yang memberikan kontribusi penting bagi kurikulum berbasis kompetensi. B. Thesis Ppt? Pengertian Metode Pembelajaran. Dedication Essay? (h. Thesis Proposal Ppt? 106-110) Metologi berasal dari Bahasa Yunani; Metha (dibalik atau dibelakang). Management Of Literature? Hodos berarti melalui, melewati atau berarti jalan. Proposal? Cara atau (thariqoh, arab) dan logos yang berarti ilmu atau science, sedang metodologi berarti ilmu mengenai berbagai cara atau jalan yang ditempuh untuk sampai ke tujuan. Kit Lonza? Pembelajaran berasal dari kata instruction (dalam Bahasa Yunani in thesis proposal writing tructus, intrucre) yang berarti menyampaikan pikiran. Travel Jobs? Jadi arti Intructional adalah menyampaikan pikiran atau ide yang telah diolah secara bermakna melalui pembelajaran. Maka metode pembelajaran berarti berbagai cara atau seperangkat cara atau jalan yang dilakukan, ditempuh guru secara sistematis melakukan upaya pembelajaran yang telah diolah sehingga menjadi milik peserta didik. Proposal Writing? Metode pembelajaran diartikan sebagai prinsip-prinsip yang mendasari kegiatan yang mengarahkan perkembangan seseorang, khususnya proses belajar mengajar. C. Dedication? Manfaat Metode Pembelajaran. Proposal? (h.
110-111) Manfaat metodologi pembelajaran bagi guru yaitu : Membahas tentang berbagai prinsip dan teknik-teknik serta pendekatan pengajaran yang digunakan, maka dengan mempelajari metodologi pembelajaran seorang guru dapat memilih metode mana yang layak untuk dipakai dalam proses belajar mengajar. Zero? Dapat mengetahu dan mempertimbangkan keunggulan dan kelemahan metode-metode pembelajaran tersebut. Writing Ppt? Dengan banyaknya materi dan terbatasnya waktu untuk menyampaikan materi, maka seorang pendidik dapat merancang dan mendesain pengajaran. Essay? Dengan mengetahui metodologi pembelajaran, maka seorang guru dapat memberikan kontribusi pengetahuan kepada peserta didik sebagai calaon guru atau pendidik.
D. Proposal Writing Ppt? Metode-metode Pembelajaran. Engineering? (h. Writing? 111-117) Ada beberapa macam metodologi pembelajaran; sebagai berikut : Metode Ceramah Metode Diskusi Metode Tanya Jawab Metode Pemberian Tugas. Country Dissertation? Metode Demontrasi Metode bermain Peranan. E. Ppt? Metode Pembelajaran Tuntas. Working Management Review Of Literature? (H. Thesis? 118-120) Metode pembelajarn tuntas merupakan suatu model yang banyak dimanfaatkan para guru dalam pembelajaran dan intruktur dalam pelatihan. Engineering Ethics? Hal ini dimaksudkan agar peserta didik dapat menguasai materi pembelajran yang dirancang oleh guru untuk mengembangkan pengetahuan, pemahaman dan keterampilan peserta didik terakhir.
Model Pembelajaran Tuntas adalah suatu usaha yang berhasil membawa semua peserta didik kepada tujuan , apa yang diajarkan hendaknya difahami oleh peserta didik. Adapun tujuan pembelajaran tuntas adalah tercapainya tiga ranah kognitif, afektif dan psikomotor. EVALUASI DALAM PENDIDIKAN ISLAM. Secara harfiyah kata evaluasi berasal dari bahasa Inggris evalution; dalam bahasa Arab : al-Tadir, dalam bahasa Indonesia: penilaian. Writing? Sedangkan akar katanya yaitu : value dalam bahasa Arab al-Qimah; dalam bahasa Indonesia berarti nilai. Tolerance Essay? Secara Harfiyah evaluasi pendidikan dapat diartikan sebagai penilaian dalam bidang pendidikan atau penilaian mengenai hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan pendidikan. Proposal Writing? Adapun menurut Istilah bahwa evaluasi pendidikan adalah kegiatan atau proses penentuan nilai pendidikan sehingga dapat diketahui mutu dan hasil-hasilnya (Sudijono 2006:1). Untuk evaluasi pendidikan Islam Zuhairini dkk (1981:139) mengemukakan yaitu suatu kegiatan untuk menentukan taraf kemajuan suatu aktivitas di dalam pendidikan Islam. B. Essay Engineering Ethics? Tujuan dan Fungsi Evaluasi Pendidikan Islam. Thesis Writing? (h.
122-124) M. Engineering? Athiyah al-abrasyi menyebutkan tujuan evalusi pendidikan yang dikutip oleh Abdul Mujib dan Yusuf Mudzakkir (2006:211) adalah untuk mengetahui kadar pemahaman peserta didik terhadap materi pelajaran, melatih kebaranian dan mengajak peserta didik untuk mengingat kembali materi yang telah diberikan , dan mengetahui tingkat perubahan prilakunya. Oemar Hamalik (1982:106-107) memberikan penjelasan tentang fungsi dari evaluasi adalah membantu peserta didik agar ia dapat mengubah dan mengembangkan tingkah lakunya secara sadar, serta memberikan bantuan padanya cara meraih suatu kepuasan bila berbuat sebagaimana mestinya. Thesis Ppt? Disamping itu fungsi evaluasi juga dapat membantu seorang pendidik dalam mempertimbangkan adequate (cukup memadai) metode pengajaran serta membantu dan mempertimbangkan administrasinya. C. Dedication? Prinsip-prinsip Evaluasi. Thesis Proposal? (124-125) Evaluasi hasil belajar dapat dikatakan terlaksana dengan baik apabila dalam pelaksanaannya senantiasa berpegang pada tiga prinsip dasar yaitu : Prinsip Keseluruhan (al-Kalam, al-Tamam) Prinsip Kesinambungan (Istimrar) Prinsip Objektivitas (Maudlu’yyah) (Sudijono 2006 dan Mujib dan Mudzakkir 2000:213) D. Dedication? Sasaran Evaluasi. Thesis? (h.
125-126) Menurut A Thabrani ada tiga sasaran pokok dalam evaluasi, yaitu : Segi Tingkah Laku, artinya segi-segi yang menyangkut sikap, minat, perhatian, keterampilan murid sebagai akibat dari proses belajar mengajar Segi Pendidikan, artinya penguasaan materi pelajaran yang diberikan oleh guru dalam proses belajar mengajar Segi-segi yang menyangkut proses belajar mengajar dan mengajar itu sendiri, yaitu bahwa proses belajar mengajar perlu diberikan penilaian secara obyektif dari guru. Assay Kit Lonza? Seab baik tidaknya proses belajar mengajar akan menentukan baik tidaknya hasil belajar yang dicapai oleh murid (2000: 218) E. Proposal? Jenis-jenis Evaluasi. Management Review Of Literature? (h. Thesis Writing? 126-129) Ramayulis mengemukakan bahwa jnis-jenis evaluasi yang diterapkan dalam pendidikan Islam ada empat macam, yaitu : Evaluasi Formatif Evaluasi Sumatif Evaluasi Penempatan (Placement) Evaluasi Diagnosis. F. Zero? Prosedur Evaluasi. Proposal Writing? (h. Essay Ethics? 129-131) Anas Sudijono (2006: 59-62) merinci kegiatan evaluasi hasil belajarkedalam enam langkah pokok, yaitu : Menyusun rencana evaluasi hasil belajar Menghimpun data Melakukan verifikasi data Mengolah dan menganalisis data Memberikan interprestasi dan menarik kesimpulan Tidak lanjut hasil evaluasi. G. Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? Syarat-syarat Evaluasi. Essay? (h. Thesis? 131)
Syarat-syarat yang dilakukan dalam pelaksanaan evaluasi yaitu : Tes harus dilakukan berdasarkan hal-hal yang seharusnya dievaluasi, yang meliputi seluruh bidang tertentu yang diinginkan dan diselidiki sehingga tidak hannya mencakup satu bidang saja. Essay? Soal-soal tes harus memberikan gambaran ke seluruh dari kesanggupan peserta didik mengenai bidang tertentu. Tes yang dapat dipercaya yang memberikan keterangan tentang kesanggupan peserta didik yang sesungguhnya. Thesis Proposal Ppt? Soal yang ditampilkan tidak membawa tafsiran yang macam-macam. Tes yang mudah dalam administrasi, penilaian, dan interprestasi (Nasution 1982:167-170). Buku ini tampil dengan sangat menarik disertai bahasanya yang mudah dipahami dan mudah dicerna oleh semua kalangan khususnya para mahasiswa. Dedication Essay? Buku ini menerangkan materi seputar Ilmu Pendidikan Islam.
Dengan buku diharapkan sebagai calon guru atau pendidik kita memahami apa sebenarnya pendidikan Islam sehingga saat kita sudah menjadi pendidik kelak dapat mempraktekannya. Buku ini tergolong buku yang baru terbit terbukti pada bulan Desember tahun 2011 sebagai cetakan yang kesatu. Thesis? Buku ini harganya murah tetapi isinya sangat baik sehingga para konsumen lebih condong memilih buku ini. Terima kasih atas segala perhatian, kami menantikan saran dan kritik yang membangun. Country Dissertation? Mohon maaf atas segala kekurangan.
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[PPT]Writing Thesis and Dissertation Proposals - UT College of Liberal Arts
100 Cause and thesis writing Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Essay? Speculate about what caused the situation. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation.
Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an writing, essay: Reword the working capital management of literature, question to fit your assignment. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Thesis Proposal Ppt? Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to essay the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children?
Does the thesis proposal ppt, age of the child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the engineering ethics, dating and marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an thesis writing ppt, abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against their parents?
What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to dedication have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to proposal writing become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of growing up in a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships?
How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to travel over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on proposal, the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the capital of literature, effect of family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.? What are the effects of growing up in poverty?
What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the increase in international adoption in thesis proposal writing ppt Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the tolerance, cause of men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the thesis proposal writing, causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear?
What are the effects of zero inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of ppt continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the writing jobs, effect on children of proposal writing growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the engineering, effects of proposal ppt this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health?
What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the effect of travel globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate? What effect does stress have on thesis proposal writing, health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths?
What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to essay be so deadly? What has caused cancer to thesis proposal be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on country, women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on health?
What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to writing ppt make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to endotoxin assay spend more money?
What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and proposal writing video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones?
How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and country risk dissertation books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to thesis proposal writing ppt learn better? What are the positive and negative effects of having school uniforms?
What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students?
What effect do longer school days have on engineering, a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Civil War? What are the proposal, continuing effects of slavery on risk dissertation, American society? What was the cause of the thesis ppt, increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by essay, their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people?
What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the proposal writing, Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on endotoxin assay, universities in the U.S.? What was the proposal, effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism?
In the zero essay, viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on thesis proposal, a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians?
What was the dedication essay, cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the proposal ppt, cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. by Josh Wilmoth 0. How to Write Cause and Effect Essays. by Virginia Kearney 5. Kit Lonza? Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123. Thesis Proposal Writing? 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. This was great for dedication, me because I had to write an essay about thesis proposal writing, some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students.
I have traveled in China four different times and working capital review of literature love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thesis Proposal Ppt? Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good. Hi thanks for working, helping me. these topics are really good.. Proposal Ppt? i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships. Zero? Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for writing, your LARGE ammount of tips.
These topics really helped me for dedication essay, school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Creative idea for writing, a hub, what was your case and dedication essay effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis.
Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thesis Writing? Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the years and now this is dedication essay, my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work!
Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for ppt, my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you.
Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Dedication? Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub!
Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for thesis proposal, sharing. Dedication Essay? Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and thesis proposal writing ppt professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. Travel Writing? I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here.
Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon as well as to ppt influence. Working Capital Management Of Literature? I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Writing Ppt? Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago.
These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in endotoxin assay many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub!
I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Thesis Proposal Ppt? Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful. Vote up. Country? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to writing ppt point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of travel courses. Proposal Ppt? I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Dedication Essay? Sometimes it is hard to thesis proposal writing ppt pull them apart. That is engineering ethics, why I usually like to call this a speculating about thesis ppt, causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation. Zero Tolerance Essay? Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in thesis different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to working capital management review of literature be in proposal writing APA format, and it is interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to travel research topics before writing and proposal ppt also note taking is effective. The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from writing jobs California.
Great topics! Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from proposal United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative.
It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to risk dissertation work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to have my students check out some of proposal writing ppt these for endotoxin kit lonza, their own essays. Proposal Writing? Annie Miller 4 years ago from dissertation Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in ppt depth Hub. Risk Dissertation? I am passing this along and writing saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing.
Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. Assay? carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Thesis Proposal Ppt? Great hub.
Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and essay company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of writing HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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[PPT]How to Write a Thesis
essay on christian ESSAY ON CHRISTIANITY. THE Being who has influenced in the most memorable manner the opinions and the fortunes of the writing, human species, is Jesus Christ. At this day, his name is connected with the devotional feelings of assay, two hundred millions of the race of man. The institutions of the most civilized portions of the globe derive their authority from the sanction of his doctrines; he is the hero, the God, of proposal writing ppt, our popular religion. His extraordinary genius, the wide and rapid effect of his unexampled doctrines, his invincible gentleness and benignity, the devoted love borne to him by his adherents, suggested a persuasion to them that he was something divine. The supernatural events which the historians of essay, this wonderful man subsequently asserted to proposal ppt, have been connected with every gradation of his career, established the opinion.
His death is said to have been accompanied by dedication, an accumulation of tremendous prodigies. Utter darkness fell upon the earth, blotting the noonday sun; dead bodies, arising from their graves, walked through the public streets, and an earthquake shook the astonished city, rending the rocks of the surrounding mountains. The philosopher may attribute the application of these events to proposal writing ppt, the death of a reformer, or the assay kit lonza, events themselves to a visitation of that universal Pan who—— The thoughts which the word God suggests to the human mind are susceptible of as many variations as human minds themselves. The Stoic, the Platonist, and the Epicurean, the Polytheist, the Dualist, and the Trinitarian, differ infinitely in their conceptions of its meaning. They agree only in thesis writing, considering it the most awful and most venerable of travel jobs, names, as a common term devised to express all of mystery, or majesty, or power, which the invisible world contains. And not only has every sect distinct conceptions of the application of this name, but scarcely two individuals of the same sect, who exercise in any degree the freedom of their judgment, or yield themselves with any candour of feeling to the influences of the thesis proposal, visible world, find perfect coincidence of opinion to exist between them. Working Capital Review Of Literature? It is writing ppt, [interesting] to inquire in what acceptation Jesus Christ employed this term. We may conceive his mind to have been predisposed on this subject to adopt the opinions of his countrymen. Every human being is indebted for a multitude of his sentiments to the religion of his early years. Jesus Christ probably [studied] the historians of his country with the ardour of a spirit seeking after truth.
They were undoubtedly the companions of his childish years, the food and nutriment and materials of his youthful meditations. The Sublime dramatic poem entitled Job had familiarized his imagination with the dedication, boldest imagery afforded by proposal writing, the human mind and the material world. Ecclesiastes had diffused a seriousness and solemnity over the frame of assay kit lonza, his spirit, glowing with youthful hope, and [had] made audible to his listening heart The still, sad music of humanity, Not harsh or grating, but of ample power. To chasten and subdue. He had contemplated this name as having been profanely perverted to the sanctioning of the most enormous and abominable crimes. We can distinctly trace, in the tissue of his doctrines, the persuasion that God is some universal Being, differing from proposal ppt man and the mind of man. Risk Dissertation? According to Jesus Christ, God is neither the Jupiter, who sends rain upon the earth; nor the Venus, through whom all living things are produced; nor the Vulcan, who presides over the terrestrial element of fire; nor the Vesta, that preserves the light which is proposal writing, enshrined in the sun and moon and stars. He is tolerance, neither the Proteus nor the Pan of the material world. But the word God, according to the acceptation of proposal writing ppt, Jesus Christ, unites all the assay kit lonza, attributes which these denominations contain and is the [interpoint] and over-ruling Spirit of all the energy and wisdom included within the circle of existing things. It is important to observe that the author of the Christian system had a conception widely differing from the gross imaginations of the vulgar relatively to the ruling Power of the universe.
He everywhere represents this Power as something mysteriously and illimitably pervading the frame of things. Nor do his doctrines practically assume any proposition which they theoretically deny. They do not represent God as a limitless and writing ppt, inconceivable mystery; affirming, at the same time, his existence as a Being subject to passion and capable—— Blessed are the pure in country risk dissertation, heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are those who have preserved internal sanctity of soul; who are conscious of no secret deceit; who are the same in act as they are in desire; who conceal no thought, no tendencies of thought, from their own conscience; who are faithful and sincere witnesses, before the tribunal of their own judgments, of thesis proposal writing ppt, all that passes within their mind. Such as these shall see God. What! after death, shall their awakened eyes behold the essay ethics, King of Heaven?
Shall they stand in awe before the golden throne on which he sits, and gaze upon the venerable countenance of the paternal Monarch? Is this the reward of the virtuous and the pure? These are the idle dreams of the thesis ppt, visionary, or the pernicious representations of impostors, who have fabricated from the very materials of wisdom a cloak for their own dwarfish or imbecile conceptions. Jesus Christ has said no more than the most excellent philosophers have felt and expressed—that virtue is its own reward. It is true that such an expression as he has used was prompted by the energy of genius, and was the overflowing enthusiasm of a poet; but it is not the assay, less literally true [because] clearly repugnant to the mistaken conceptions of the multitude.
God, it has been asserted, was contemplated by Jesus Christ as every poet and every philosopher must have contemplated that mysterious principle. He considered that venerable word to express the overruling Spirit of the collective energy of the moral and material world. He affirms, therefore, no more than that a simple, sincere mind is the indispensable requisite of true science and true happiness. He affirms that a being of pure and gentle habits will not fail, in every thought, in proposal writing ppt, every object of every thought, to be aware of benignant visitings from the invisible energies by which he is surrounded. Whosoever is free from the contamination of luxury and licence, may go forth to the fields and to the woods, inhaling joyous renovation from the breath of Spring, or catching from the odours and sounds of Autumn some diviner mood of sweetest sadness, which improves the essay, softened heart. Whosoever is no deceiver or destroyer of his fellow men—no liar, no flatterer, no murderer may walk among his species, deriving, from the communion with all which they contain of beautiful or of majestic, some intercourse with the Universal God. Proposal Writing? Whosoever has maintained with his own heart the endotoxin assay, strictest correspondence of confidence, who dares to examine and to estimate every imagination which suggests itself to his mind—whosoever is that which he designs to become, and only aspires to that which the divinity of his own nature shall consider and approve—he has already seen God. We live and move and think; but we are not the thesis proposal writing, creators of our own origin and existence.
We are not the arbiters of every motion of our own complicated nature; we are not the masters of country, our own imaginations and proposal, moods of mental being. There is a Power by which we are surrounded, like the atmosphere in which some motionless lyre is suspended, which visits with its breath our silent chords at will. Our most imperial and zero tolerance essay, stupendous qualities—those on which the majesty and the power of humanity is erected—are, relatively to the inferior portion of its mechanism, active and imperial; but they are the passive slaves of some higher and more omnipotent Power. This Power is God; and thesis writing, those who have seen God have, in the period of their purer and more perfect nature, been harmonized by their own will to country risk dissertation, so exquisite [a] consentaneity of power as to give forth divinest melody, when the proposal, breath of universal being sweeps over their frame. Essay Ethics? That those who are pure in thesis proposal writing, heart shall see God, and that virtue is its own reward, may be considered as equivalent assertions.
The former of these propositions is a metaphorical repetition of the latter. The advocates of country risk dissertation, literal interpretation have been the most efficacious enemies of those doctrines whose nature they profess to venerate. Thucydides, in particular, affords a number of instances calculated—— Tacitus says, that the Jews held God to be something eternal and proposal, supreme, neither subject to change nor to decay; therefore, they permit no statues in their cities or their temples. The universal Being can only be described or defined by negatives which deny his subjection to the laws of all inferior existences.
Where indefiniteness ends, idolatry and anthropomorphism begin. God is, as Lucan has expressed, Quodcunque vides, quodcunque moveris, Et coelum et virtus. Travel? The doctrine of what some fanatics have termed a peculiar Providence—that is, of some power beyond and superior to that which ordinarily guides the operations of the Universe, interfering to punish the thesis proposal, vicious and reward the virtuous—is explicitly denied by Jesus Christ. The absurd and dissertation, execrable doctrine of vengeance, in all its shapes , seems to have been contemplated by proposal ppt, this great moralist with the travel writing jobs, profoundest disapprobation; nor would he permit the most venerable of names to be perverted into a sanction for the meanest and most contemptible propensities incident to the nature of man. Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, that ye may be the sons of thesis ppt, your Heavenly Father, who makes the sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and the rain to fall on the just and unjust. How monstrous a calumny have not impostors dared to advance against the mild and gentle author of this just sentiment, and against the whole tenor of his doctrines and his life, overflowing with benevolence and forbearance and compassion! They have represented him asserting that the Omnipotent God—that merciful and tolerance, benignant Power who scatters equally upon the beautiful earth all the elements of security and happiness—whose influences are distributed to all whose natures admit of a participation in them—who sends to the weak and vicious creatures of his will all the benefits which they are capable of sharing—that this God has devised a scheme whereby the body shall live after its apparent dissolution, and be rendered capable of indefinite torture. He is said to thesis proposal ppt, have compared the agonies which the vicious shall then endure to the excruciations of kit lonza, a living body bound among the flames, and being consumed sinew by sinew, and bone by bone. And this is to be done, not because it is supposed (and the supposition would be sufficiently detestable) that the moral nature of the sufferer would be improved by his tortures—it is done because it is just to be done.
My neighbour, or my servant, or my child, has done me an injury, and it is proposal writing ppt, just that he should suffer an injury in return. Such is the dedication essay, doctrine which Jesus Christ summoned his whole resources of persuasion to oppose. Love your enemy, bless those who curse you: such, he says, is the practice of thesis writing ppt, God, and country risk, such must ye imitate if ye would be the children of God. Jesus Christ would hardly have cited, as an example of all that is gentle and beneficent and proposal, compassionate, a Being who shall deliberately scheme to inflict on a large portion of the human race tortures indescribably intense and indefinitely protracted; who shall inflict them, too, without any mistake as to the true nature of pain—without any view to future good—merely because it is just. This, and no other, is justice:—to consider, under all the circumstances and consequences of a particular case, how the greatest quantity and purest quality of happiness will ensue from tolerance essay any action; [this] is to be just, and there is no other justice. The distinction between justice and mercy was first imagined in the courts of tyrants. Writing? Mankind receive every relaxation of their tyranny as a circumstance of grace or favour. Such was the clemency of Julius Caesar, who, having achieved by a series of treachery and dedication essay, bloodshed the ruin of the liberties of his country, receives the fame of thesis proposal writing ppt, mercy because, possessing the power to slay the noblest men of Rome, he restrained his sanguinary soul, arrogating to engineering ethics, himself as a merit an abstinence from thesis writing ppt actions which if he had committed, he would only have added one other atrocity to his deeds. His assassins understood justice better. Management Review? They saw the most virtuous and civilized community of mankind under the insolent dominion of one wicked man; and they murdered him.
They destroyed the usurper of the liberties of their countrymen, not because they hated him, not because they would revenge the wrongs which they had sustained (Brutus, it is thesis writing ppt, said, was his most familiar friend; most of the conspirators were habituated to domestic intercourse with the man whom they destroyed): it was in affection, inextinguishable love for all that is venerable and dear to the human heart, in the names of Country, Liberty, and Virtue; it was in a serious and writing jobs, solemn and reluctant mood, that these holy patriots murdered their father and thesis, their friend. They would have spared his violent death, if he could have deposited the writing, rights which he had assumed. His own selfish and narrow nature necessitated the sacrifices they made. They required that he should change all those habits which debauchery and bloodshed had twined around the fibres of his inmost frame of thought; that he should participate with them and with his country those privileges which, having corrupted by assuming to himself, he would no longer value. They would have sacrificed their lives if they could have made him worthy of the sacrifice. Such are the thesis, feelings which Jesus Christ asserts to belong to the ruling Power of the world. He desireth not the death of a sinner; he makes the sun to shine upon the just and unjust.
The nature of a narrow and malevolent spirit is so essentially incompatible with happiness as to render it inaccessible to the influences of the benignant God. All that his own perverse propensities will permit him to receive, that God abundantly pours forth upon review him. If there is the slightest overbalance of happiness, which can be allotted to the most atrocious offender, consistently with the nature of things, that is rigidly made his portion by the ever-watchful Power of God. Writing? In every case, the human mind enjoys the utmost pleasure which it is capable of enjoying. God is represented by Jesus Christ as the Power from which, and through which, the streams of all that is excellent and delightful flow; the Power which models, as they pass, all the elements of this mixed universe to dedication, the purest and most perfect shape which it belongs to thesis proposal ppt, their nature to assume. Jesus Christ attributes to this Power the faculty of capital management review, Will.
How far such a doctrine, in its ordinary sense, may be philosophically true, or how far Jesus Christ intentionally availed himself of a metaphor easily understood, is foreign to the subject to consider. This much is certain, that Jesus Christ represents God as the fountain of all goodness, the thesis writing, eternal enemy of pain and evil, the uniform and unchanging motive of the salutary operations of the material world. The supposition that this cause is excited to action by some principle analogous to the human will, adds weight to the persuasion that it is foreign to its beneficent nature to inflict the slightest pain. According to Jesus Christ, and according to the indisputable facts of the case, some evil spirit has dominion in this imperfect world. But there will come a time when the human mind shall be visited exclusively by the influences of the benignant Power. Men shall die, and their bodies shall rot under the ground; all the organs through which their knowledge and their feelings have flowed, or in which they have originated, shall assume other forms, and become ministrant to purposes the most foreign from their former tendencies. There is a time when we shall neither be heard or be seen by the multitude of beings like ourselves by whom we have been so long surrounded. Travel? They shall go to thesis proposal writing ppt, graves; where then? It appears that we moulder to a heap of engineering ethics, senseless dust; to a few worms, that arise and perish, like ourselves. Jesus Christ asserts that these appearances are fallacious, and proposal writing ppt, that a gloomy and cold imagination alone suggests the conception that thought can cease to be.
Another and endotoxin assay kit lonza, a more extensive state of proposal writing, being, rather than the complete extinction of being will follow from that mysterious change which we call Death. Endotoxin? There shall be no misery, no pain, no fear. The empire of evil spirits extends not beyond the boundaries of the grave. The unobscured irradiations from the fountain-fire of writing, all goodness shall reveal all that is mysterious and unintelligible, until the mutual communications of knowledge and of happiness throughout all thinking natures, constitute a harmony of good that ever varies and never ends. This is Heaven, when pain and evil cease, and when the Benignant Principle, untrammelled and uncontrolled, visits in the fulness of travel jobs, its power the universal frame of things.
Human life, with all its unreal ills and transitory hopes, is as a dream, which departs before the thesis proposal writing ppt, dawn, leaving no trace of its evanescent lines. All that it contains of pure or of divine visits the passive mind in some serenest mood. Most holy are the feelings through which our fellow beings are rendered dear and [venerable] to the heart. Zero Essay? The remembrance of their sweetness, and the completion of the hopes which they [excite], constitute, when we awaken from the sleep of life, the proposal, fulfilment of the prophecies of its most majestic and beautiful visions. We die, says Jesus Christ; and, when we awaken from the languor of disease, the glories and the happiness of tolerance, Paradise are around us. All evil and pain have ceased for ever. Our happiness also corresponds with, and is adapted to, the nature of what is most excellent in our being. Proposal Writing? We see God, and we see that he is management review, good. Thesis Proposal Writing? How delightful a picture, even if it be not true!
How magnificent is the conception which this bold theory suggests to the contemplation, even if it be no more than the endotoxin assay kit lonza, imagination of some sublimest and most holy poet, who, impressed with the proposal writing ppt, loveliness and majesty of his own nature, is impatient and discontented with the narrow limits which this imperfect life and the dark grave have assigned for ever as his melancholy portion. Endotoxin Assay? It is not to be believed that Hell, or punishment, was the conception of this daring mind. It is not to be believed that the most prominent group of this picture, which is framed so heart-moving and lovely—the accomplishment of all human hope, the extinction of all morbid fear and thesis proposal writing ppt, anguish—would consist of millions of sensitive beings enduring, in every variety of torture which Omniscient vengeance could invent, immortal agony. Jesus Christ opposed with earnest eloquence the panic fears and hateful superstitions which have enslaved mankind for ages. Zero Tolerance Essay? Nations had risen against nations, employing the subtlest devices of mechanism and mind to waste, and excruciate, and overthrow. Thesis Proposal? The great community of mankind had been subdivided into ten thousand communities, each organized for the ruin of the other. Wheel within wheel, the dissertation, vast machine was instinct with the restless spirit of desolation.
Pain had been inflicted; therefore, pain should be inflicted in return. Retaliation of injuries is the only remedy which can be applied to writing ppt, violence, because it teaches the injurer the dedication essay, true nature of his own conduct, and operates as a warning against its repetition. Nor must the same measure of calamity be returned as was received. Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? If a man borrows a certain sum from me, he is bound to repay that sum. Working Review Of Literature? Shall no more be required of the enemy who destroys my reputation, or ravages my fields?
It is just that he should suffer ten times the loss which he has inflicted, that the legitimate consequences of his deed may never be obliterated from his remembrance, and that others may clearly discern and thesis writing, feel the danger of dedication, invading the peace of human society. Such reasonings, and the impetuous feelings arising from them, have armed nation against proposal nation, family against family, man against man. An Athenian soldier, in the Ionian army which had assembled for the purpose of vindicating the liberty of the Asiatic Greeks, accidentally set fire to Sardis. Kit Lonza? The city, being composed of combustible materials, was burned to the ground. The Persians believed that this circumstance of aggression made it their duty to retaliate on Athens. They assembled successive expeditions on thesis proposal ppt the most extensive scale. Every nation of the East was united to ruin the Grecian States. Athens was burned to the ground, the whole territory laid waste, and every living thing which it contained [destroyed]. After suffering and inflicting incalculable mischiefs, they desisted from tolerance essay their purpose only proposal, when they became impotent to effect it. The desire of revenge for travel jobs, the aggression of Persia outlived, among the Greeks, that love of liberty which bad been their most glorious distinction among the nations of mankind; and proposal, Alexander became the instrument of its completion.
The mischiefs attendant on this consummation of fruitless ruin are too manifold and too tremendous to be related. If all the thought which had been expended on the construction of essay, engines of agony and death—the modes of aggression and defence, the raising of proposal, armies, and the acquirement of those arts of tyranny and falsehood without which mixed multitudes could neither be led nor governed—had been employed to promote the true welfare and extend the dedication essay, real empire of thesis proposal writing ppt, man, how different would have been the present situation of human society! how different the state of knowledge in physical and moral science, upon which the power and happiness of mankind essentially depend! What nation has the example of the desolation of zero tolerance, Attica by Mardonius and Xerxes, or the thesis writing ppt, extinction of the country risk, Persian empire by Alexander of Macedon, restrained from outrage? Was not the pretext of this latter system of spoliation derived immediately from the former? Had revenge in this instance any other effect than to increase, instead of diminishing, the mass of malice and proposal, evil already existing in the world? The emptiness and folly of risk dissertation, retaliation are apparent from every example which can be brought forward. Thesis Proposal Writing? Not only Jesus Christ, but the management, most eminent professors of every sect of philosophy, have reasoned against this futile superstition. Legislation is, in one point of view, to be considered as an attempt to provide against the excesses of this deplorable mistake.
It professes to assign the penalty of all private injuries, and denies to individuals the thesis writing, right of vindicating their proper cause. This end is certainly not attained without some accommodation to the propensities which it desires to destroy. Still, it recognizes no principle but the production of the greatest eventual good with the least immediate injury—and regards the torture, or the dedication, death, of any human being as unjust, of whatever mischief be may have been the author, so that the result shall not more than compensate for the immediate pain. Mankind, transmitting from thesis proposal ppt generation to generation the legacy of accumulated vengeances, and pursuing with the feelings of duty the misery of their fellow-beings, have not failed to attribute to the Universal Cause a character analogous with their own. The image of this invisible, mysterious Being is more or less excellent and perfect—resembles more or less its original—in proportion to the perfection of the working capital of literature, mind on which it is impressed.
Thus, that nation which has arrived at the highest step in the scale of thesis writing ppt, moral progression will believe most purely in that God, the endotoxin, knowledge of whose real attributes is considered as the firmest basis of the true religion. The reason of the belief of each individual, also, will be so far regulated by his conceptions of what is good. Thus, the conceptions which any nation or individual entertains of the thesis proposal writing ppt, God of its popular worship may be inferred from their own actions and opinions, which are the subjects of their approbation among their fellow-men. Jesus Christ instructed his disciples to be perfect, as their Father in endotoxin, Heaven is writing ppt, perfect, declaring at the same time his belief that human perfection requires the refraining from revenge and retribution in any of endotoxin assay kit lonza, its various shapes. The perfection of the human and proposal writing ppt, the divine character is thus asserted to be the same. Man, by resembling God, fulfils most accurately the tendencies of his nature; and country, God comprehends within himself all that constitutes human perfection. Thus, God is a model through which the excellence of thesis proposal writing, man is to be estimated, whilst the abstract perfection of the human character is the type of the actual perfection of the divine. Writing? It is not to be believed that a person of such comprehensive views as Jesus Christ could have fallen into so manifest a contradiction as to proposal writing, assert that men would be tortured after death by that Being whose character is held up as a model to human kind, because he is incapable of malevolence and revenge. All the arguments which have been brought forward to justify retribution fail, when retribution is destined neither to operate as an example to other agents, nor to the offender himself. How feeble such reasoning is to be considered, has been already shewn; but it is the character of an evil Demon to consign the beings whom he has endowed with sensation to unprofitable anguish.
The peculiar circumstances attendant on the conception of management of literature, God casting sinners to burn in proposal writing, Hell for ever, combine to render that conception the most perfect specimen of the greatest imaginable crime. Jesus Christ represented God as the principle of all good, the dedication essay, source of all happiness, the wise and benevolent Creator and Preserver of all living things. But the interpreters of his doctrines have confounded the good and the evil principle. Thesis Proposal Writing? They observed the emanations of their universal natures to be inextricably entangled in the world, and, trembling before the engineering ethics, power of the cause of all things, addressed to it such flattery as is acceptable to the ministers of thesis writing, human tyranny, attributing love and wisdom to those energies which they felt to be exerted indifferently for the purposes of benefit and calamity. Jesus Christ expressly asserts that distinction between the good and evil principle which it has been the practice of all theologians to confound. How far his doctrines, or their interpretation, may be true, it would scarcely have been worth while to inquire, if the one did not afford an example and an incentive to the attainment of true virtue, whilst the other holds out a sanction and apology for every species of zero tolerance essay, mean and cruel vice. It cannot be precisely ascertained in what degree Jesus Christ accommodated his doctrines to the opinions of his auditors; or in what degree he really said all that he is related to have said. He has left no written record of himself, and we are compelled to judge from the imperfect and obscure information which his biographers (persons certainly of very undisciplined and undiscriminating minds) have transmitted to posterity.
These writers (our only guides) impute sentiments to Jesus Christ which flatly contradict each other. Thesis? They represent him as narrow, superstitious, and exquisitely vindictive and malicious. They insert, in risk, the midst of proposal, a strain of impassioned eloquence or sagest exhortation, a sentiment only remarkable for its naked and drivelling folly. But it is not difficult to distinguish the inventions by which these historians have filled up the interstices of essay, tradition, or corrupted the simplicity of truth, from the real character of their rude amazement. They have left sufficiently clear indications of the genuine character of proposal, Jesus Christ to rescue it for dedication essay, ever from the imputations cast upon it by their ignorance and fanaticism. Proposal Ppt? We discover that he is the enemy of of literature, oppression and of falsehood; that he is the advocate of equal justice; that he is proposal writing, neither disposed to sanction bloodshed nor deceit, under whatsoever pretences their practice may be vindicated. We discover that he was a man of meek and majestic demeanour, calm in danger; of natural and simple thought and habits; beloved to adoration by his adherents; unmoved, solemn, and severe. It is utterly incredible that this man said, that if you hate your enemy you would find it to your account to return him good for evil, since, by such a temporary oblivion of dedication essay, vengeance, you would heap coals of proposal writing ppt, fire on his head. Writing? Where such contradictions occur, a favourable construction is warranted by the general innocence of manners and comprehensiveness of views which he is represented to possess.
The rule of criticism to be adopted in judging of the life, actions, and thesis proposal, words of a man who has acted any conspicuous part in the revolutions of the world, should not be narrow. We ought to form a general image of his character and of his doctrines, and refer to this whole the distinct portions of risk dissertation, action and speech by which they are diversified. It is not here asserted that no contradictions are to be admitted to have taken place in the system of writing, Jesus Christ, between doctrines promulgated in different states of feeling or information, or even such as are implied in the enunciation of a scheme of thought, various and obscure through its immensity and depth. It is not asserted that no degree of human indignation ever hurried him beyond the limits which his calmer mood had placed to disapprobation against working review vice and folly. Those deviations from the history of his life are alone to be vindicated which represent his own essential character in contradiction with itself.
Every human mind has what Bacon calls its idola specus—peculiar images which reside in the inner cave of thought. These constitute the essential and distinctive character of every human being; to proposal, which every action and every word have intimate relation; and by which, in depicting a character, the genuineness and meaning of these words and actions are to be determined. Every fanatic or enemy of virtue is not at liberty to misrepresent the greatest geniuses and essay, most heroic defenders of all that is valuable in this mortal world. History, to gain any credit, must contain some truth, and that truth shall thus be made a sufficient indication of prejudice and deceit. With respect to the miracles which these biographers have related, I have already declined to enter into any discussion on their nature or their existence. The supposition of their falsehood or their truth would modify in no degree the hues of the picture which is attempted to be delineated. To judge truly of the moral and philosophical character of Socrates, it is not necessary to determine the question of the familiar Spirit which [it] is thesis proposal, supposed that he believed to jobs, attend on him. Thesis Ppt? The power of the human mind, relatively to intercourse with or dominion over the invisible world, is doubtless an interesting theme of discussion; but the connexion of the instance of dedication, Jesus Christ with the thesis, established religion of the country in which I write, renders it dangerous to subject oneself to the imputation of dedication, introducing new Gods or abolishing old ones; nor is the duty of mutual forbearance sufficiently understood to render it certain that the metaphysician and the moralist, even though he carefully sacrifice a cock to ?sculapius, may not receive something analogous to the bowl of hemlock for the reward of his labours. Much, however, of what his biographers have asserted is not to be rejected merely because inferences inconsistent with the general spirit of his system are to be adduced from its admission. Jesus Christ did what every other reformer who has produced any considerable effect upon the world has done. He accommodated his doctrines to the prepossessions of those whom he addressed.
He used a language for this view sufficiently familiar to our comprehensions. He said,—However new or strange my doctrines may appear to you, they are in fact only the restoration and re-establishment of those original institutions and ancient customs of your own law and religion. The constitutions of your faith and policy, although perfect in their origin, have become corrupt and thesis proposal ppt, altered, and have fallen into decay. I profess to restore them to their pristine authority and splendour. Think not that I am come to endotoxin assay kit lonza, destroy the ppt, Law and the Prophets. I am come not to destroy, but to fulfil. Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass away from the Law, till all be fulfilled. Thus, like a skilful orator (see Cicero, De Oratore ), he secures the prejudices of assay kit lonza, his auditors, and induces them, by his professions of sympathy with their feelings, to enter with a willing mind into the exposition of his own. The art of persuasion differs from that of reasoning; and it is of no small moment, to the success even of proposal writing, a true cause, that the judges who are to determine on its merits should be free from those national and religious predilections which render the country risk, multitude both deaf and blind.
Let not this practice be considered as an unworthy artifice. It were best for thesis ppt, the cause of reason that mankind should acknowledge no authority but its own; but it is zero tolerance essay, useful, to a certain extent, that they should not consider those institutions which they have been habituated to reverence as opposing an obstacle to its admission. All reformers have been compelled to thesis proposal writing ppt, practise this misrepresentation of their own true feelings and opinions. It is deeply to be lamented that a word should ever issue from human lips which contains the minutest alloy of dissimulation, or simulation, or hypocrisy, or exaggeration, or anything but the precise and travel writing, rigid image which is present to the mind, and which ought to dictate the expression. But the practice of utter sincerity towards other men would avail to no good end, if they were incapable of practising it towards their own minds. In fact, truth cannot be communicated until it is perceived. The interests, therefore, of truth require that an orator should, as far as possible, produce in his hearers that state of mind on which alone his exhortations could fairly be contemplated and examined. Having produced this favourable disposition of mind, Jesus Christ proceeds to qualify, and finally to thesis writing, abrogate, the system of the Jewish law. Working Capital Management Review Of Literature? He descants upon its insufficiency as a code of moral conduct, which it professed to be, and absolutely selects the thesis proposal writing ppt, law of retaliation as an instance of the absurdity and immorality of its institutions.
The conclusion of the speech is in a strain of the management review of literature, most daring and most impassioned speculation. He seems emboldened by thesis proposal writing ppt, the success of his exculpation to the multitude, to declare in essay ethics, public the utmost singularity of his faith. He tramples upon all received opinions, on all the cherished luxuries and superstitions of mankind. He bids them cast aside the chains of custom and blind faith by which they have been encompassed from the very cradle of their being, and receive the imitator and minister of the Universal God. EQUALITY OF MANKIND. The spirit of the Lord is upon thesis writing ppt me, because he hath chosen me to preach the gospel to the poor: he hath sent me to heal the zero tolerance essay, broken-hearted, to thesis proposal writing ppt, preach deliverance to the captives and recovering of sight to writing, the blind, and to set at liberty them that are bruised. (Luke, Ch.
IV. v. 18.) This is an enunciation of all that Plato and thesis proposal writing, Diogenes have speculated upon the equality of mankind. They saw that the great majority of the human species were reduced to the situation of squalid ignorance and moral imbecility, for the purpose of endotoxin kit lonza, purveying for the luxury of thesis proposal writing, a few, and contributing to the satisfaction of their thirst for power. Dedication Essay? Too mean-spirited and thesis proposal writing, too feeble in resolve to attempt the conquest of their own evil passions, and of the difficulties of the material world, men sought dominion over their fellow-men, as an easy method to gain that apparent majesty and power which the instinct of their nature requires. Plato wrote the scheme of a republic, in which law should watch over the equal distribution of the external instruments of unequal power—honours, property, c. Working Capital Review? Diogenes devised a nobler and a more worthy system of opposition to the system of the slave and tyrant. He said: It is in the power of each individual to level the inequality which is the topic of the complaint of mankind. Let him be aware of his own worth, and the station which he occupies in ppt, the scale of moral beings. Diamonds and dedication, gold, palaces and proposal ppt, sceptres, derive their value from the opinion of engineering ethics, mankind. The only sumptuary law which can be imposed on the use and fabrication of these instruments of mischief and thesis proposal, deceit, these symbols of successful injustice, is the dedication, law of opinion. Every man possesses the power, in this respect, to legislate for himself. Let him be well aware of his own worth and moral dignity. Let him yield in meek reverence to any wiser or worthier than he, so long as he accords no veneration to the splendour of his apparel, the thesis proposal, luxury of his food, the multitude of his flatterers and slaves.
It is because, mankind, ye value and seek the empty pageantry of wealth and endotoxin assay kit lonza, social power, that ye are enslaved to its possessions. Thesis Proposal Ppt? Decrease your physical wants; learn to live, so far as nourishment arid shelter are concerned, like the beast of the forest and the birds of the air; ye will need not to complain, that other individuals of your species are surrounded by the diseases of luxury and engineering, the vices of subserviency and oppression. With all those who are truly wise, there will be an entire community, not only of thoughts and feelings, but also of external possessions. Insomuch, therefore, as ye live [wisely], ye may enjoy the community of whatsoever benefits arise from the inventions of civilized life.—They are of value only for purposes of mental power; they are of value only as they are capable of being shared and applied to the common advantage of philosophy; and, if there be, no love among men, whatever institutions they may frame must be subservient to the same purpose—to the continuance of inequality. If there be no love among men, it is best that he who sees through the hollowness of their professions should fly from their society, and suffice to his own soul.
In wisdom, be will thus lose nothing in power, he will gain everything. Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? In proportion to the love existing among men, so will be the community of property and power. Among true and real friends, all is common; and, were ignorance and envy and superstition banished from the world, all mankind would be friends. The only perfect and genuine republic is that which comprehends every living being. Those distinctions which have been artificially set up, of nations, societies, families, and religions, are only general names, expressing the essay, abhorrence and contempt with which men blindly consider their fellowmen. I love my country; I love the city in which I was born, my parents, my wife, and the children of my care; and to this city, this woman, and this nation, it is incumbent on me to do all the benefit in my power. Thesis Proposal Ppt? To what do these distinctions point, but to an evident denial of the duty which humanity imposes on you, of doing every possible good to every individual, under whatever denomination he may be comprehended, to whom you have the power of doing it? You ought to love all mankind; nay, every individual of mankind. You ought not to love the individuals of your domestic circles less, but to love those who exist beyond it more.
Once make the feelings of essay, confidence and thesis writing ppt, of affection universal, and the distinctions of property and zero tolerance essay, power will vanish; nor are they to be abolished without substituting something equivalent in mischief to thesis ppt, them, until all mankind shall acknowledge an entire community of rights. But, as the shades of night are dispelled by the faintest glimmerings of dawn, so shall the minutest progress of the benevolent feelings disperse, in some degree, the gloom of tyranny, and [curb the] ministers of mutual suspicion and abhorrence. Essay? Your physical wants are few, whilst those of your mind and heart cannot be numbered or described, from their multitude and complication. To secure the gratification of the former, you have made yourselves the bond-slaves of each other. They have cultivated these meaner wants to so great an excess as to thesis proposal writing ppt, judge nothing so valuable or desirable [as] what relates to their gratification.
Hence has arisen a system of passions which loses sight of the risk dissertation, end they were originally awakened to proposal writing, attain. Assay? Fame, power, and gold, are loved for their own sakes—are worshipped with a blind, habitual idolatry. The pageantry of empire, and the fame of writing, irresistible might, are contemplated by the possessor with unmeaning complacency, without a retrospect to the properties which first made him consider them of value. It is from the cultivation of the most contemptible properties of human nature that discord and torpor and indifference, by which the engineering ethics, moral universe is disordered, essentially depend. So long as these are the ppt, ties by which human society is connected, let it not be admitted that they are fragile. Before man can be free, and equal, and truly wise, he must cast aside the chains of habit and dissertation, superstition; he must strip sensuality of its pomp, and selfishness of its excuses, and contemplate actions and objects as they really are. Thesis? He will discover the wisdom of universal love; he will feel the meanness and the injustice of engineering, sacrificing the reason and proposal writing, the liberty of his fellow-men to the indulgence of his physical appetites, and becoming a party to their degradation by the consummation of his own. Such, with those differences only incidental to the age and state of society in which they were promulgated, appear to have been the doctrines of Jesus Christ. It is not too much to assert that they have been the doctrines of every just and compassionate mind that ever speculated on travel jobs the social nature of man. The dogma of the equality of mankind has been advocated with various success, in thesis proposal writing ppt, different ages of the world. It was imperfectly understood, but a kind of instinct in its favour influenced considerably the practice of ancient Greece and Rome.
Attempts to capital management review of literature, establish usages founded on this dogma have been made in modern Europe, in several instances, since the revival of literature and ppt, the arts. Rousseau has vindicated this opinion with all the eloquence of sincere and earnest faith; and is, perhaps, the philosopher among the moderns who, in the structure of his feelings and understanding resembles most nearly the mysterious sage of Judea. Dedication Essay? It is impossible to read those passionate words in which Jesus Christ upbraids the pusillanimity and sensuality of mankind, without being strongly reminded of the more connected and systematic enthusiasm of Rousseau. No man, says Jesus Christ, can serve two masters. Take, therefore, no thought for to-morrow, for writing ppt, the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. If we would profit by the wisdom of a sublime and poetical mind, we must beware of the vulgar error of risk dissertation, interpreting literally every expression it employs. Nothing can well be more remote from truth than the literal and strict construction of such expressions as Jesus Christ delivers, or than [to imagine that] it were best for man that he should abandon all his acquirements in physical and intellectual science, and depend on the spontaneous productions of nature for his subsistence.
Nothing is more obviously false than that the remedy for thesis proposal writing ppt, the inequality among men consists in their return to the condition of savages and beasts. Endotoxin Assay Kit Lonza? Philosophy will never be understood if we approach the study of its mysteries with so narrow and proposal, illiberal conceptions of travel writing, its universality. Thesis Proposal Writing Ppt? Rousseau certainly did not mean to country risk dissertation, persuade the immense population of thesis proposal writing ppt, his country to abandon all the arts of life, destroy their habitations and their temples, and become the inhabitants of the woods. He addressed the most enlightened of his compatriots, and endeavoured to persuade them to set the example of a pure and country dissertation, simple life, by placing in the strongest point of view his conceptions of the calamitous and diseased aspect which, overgrown as it is with the vices of sensuality and selfishness, is exhibited by thesis ppt, civilized society. Nor can it be believed that Jesus Christ endeavoured to travel, prevail on the inhabitants of Jerusalem neither to till their fields, nor to frame a shelter against the sky, nor to provide food for the morrow. Proposal Writing? He simply exposes, with the passionate rhetoric of enthusiastic love towards all human beings, the miseries and mischiefs of that system which makes all things subservient to the subsistence of the material frame of man. He warns them that no man can serve two masters—God and Mammon; that it is impossible at once to be highminded and just and wise, and to comply with the accustomed forms of human society, seek power, wealth, or empire, either from the idolatry of habit, or as the direct instruments of sensual gratification. He instructs them that clothing and food and shelter are not, as they suppose, the true end of human life, but only certain means, to be valued in essay, proportion to their subserviency to that end.
These means it is the right of every human being to writing, possess, and that in the same degree. In this respect, the country, fowls of the ppt, air and the lilies of the field are examples for the imitation of mankind. They are clothed and fed by the Universal God. Permit, therefore, the Spirit of this benignant Principle to visit your intellectual frame, or, in other words, become just and pure. When you understand the degree of attention which the requisitions of your physical nature demand, you will perceive how little labour suffices for their satisfaction. Your Heavenly Father knoweth you have need of these things. The universal Harmony, or Reason, which makes your passive frame of thought its dwelling, in proportion to the purity and majesty of its nature will instruct you, if ye are willing to attain that exalted condition, in what manner to tolerance, possess all the objects necessary for proposal writing ppt, your material subsistence. All men are [impelled] to become thus pure and happy. All men are called to participate in the community of Nature's gifts. The man who has fewest bodily wants approaches nearest to the Divine Nature.
Satisfy these wants at the cheapest rate, and expend the dedication essay, remaining energies of your nature in the attainment of virtue and knowledge. The mighty frame of the thesis ppt, wonderful and lovely world is the food of your contemplation, and living beings who resemble your own nature, and are bound to you by similarity of travel writing jobs, sensations, are destined to be the nutriment of your affection; united, they are the consummation of the widest hopes your mind can contain. Ye can expend thus no labour on mechanism consecrated to luxury and writing, pride. How abundant will not be your progress in all that truly ennobles and extends human nature! By rendering yourselves thus worthy, ye will be as free in your imaginations as the swift and many-coloured fowls of the air, and as beautiful in pure simplicity as the lilies of the field. In proportion as mankind becomes wise—yes, in exact proportion to that wisdom—should be the extinction of the unequal system under which they now subsist. Government is, in fact, the mere badge of their depravity. They are so little aware of the inestimable benefits of mutual love as to indulge, without thought, and almost without motive, in the worst excesses of endotoxin assay kit lonza, selfishness and malice. Hence, without graduating human society into a scale of thesis proposal writing, empire and essay engineering, subjection, its very existence has become impossible.
It is necessary that universal benevolence should supersede the thesis proposal writing ppt, regulations of precedent and prescription, before these regulations can safely be abolished. Meanwhile, their very subsistence depends on the system of essay engineering, injustice and thesis writing ppt, violence, which they have been devised to palliate. They suppose men endowed with the power of deliberating and determining for their equals; whilst these men, as frail and travel writing, as ignorant as the multitude whom they rule, possess, as a practical consequence of this power, the right which they of necessity exercise to writing, prevent (together with their own) the writing, physical and moral and intellectual nature, of all mankind. It is the object of wisdom to equalize the distinctions on thesis proposal which this power depends, by exhibiting in their proper worthlessness the objects, a contention concerning which renders its existence a necessary evil. The evil, in fact, is dedication essay, virtually abolished wherever justice is practised; and writing, it is abolished in precise proportion to the prevalence of true virtue. The whole frame of human things is risk dissertation, infected by an insidious poison. Hence it is that man is blind in his understanding, corrupt in his moral sense, and thesis proposal writing ppt, diseased in his physical functions. The wisest and most sublime of the ancient poets saw this truth, and embodied their conception of its value in retrospect to the earliest ages of mankind.
They represented equality as the reign of Saturn, and taught that mankind had gradually degenerated from the virtue which enabled them to enjoy or maintain this happy state. Their doctrine was philosophically false. Later and more correct observations have instructed us that uncivilized man is the most pernicious and miserable of beings, and that the violence and injustice, which are the genuine indications of real inequality, obtain in the society of these beings without palliation. Their imaginations of a happier state of human society were referred, in truth, to the Saturnian period; they ministered, indeed, to thoughts of despondency and sorrow. But they were the children of essay engineering, airy hope—the prophets and thesis, parents of man's futurity. Alan was once as a wild beast; he has become a moralist, a metaphysician, a poet, and an astronomer. Lueretius or Viril might have referred the comparison to themselves and, as a proof of the progress of the tolerance essay, nature of man, challenged a comparison with the thesis, cannibals of Scythia. The experience of the ages which have intervened between the present period and that in which Jesus Christ taught, tends to prove his doctrine, and to illustrate theirs. There is more equality because there is more justice, and there is more justice because there is more universal knowledge.
To the accomplishment of such mighty hopes were the views of Jesus Christ extended; such did he believe to be the tendency of his doctrines—the abolition of dedication, artificial distinctions among mankind, so far as the love which it becomes all human beings to bear towards each other, and thesis, the knowledge of truth from which that love will never fail to be produced, avail to their destruction. A young man came to Jesus Christ, struck by the miraculous dignity and simplicity of his character, and attracted by endotoxin kit lonza, the words of power which he uttered. He demanded to be considered as one of the thesis writing ppt, followers of his creed. Risk Dissertation? Sell all that thou hast, replied the philosopher; give it to the poor, and follow me. But the young man had large possessions, and he went away sorrowing. The system of equality was attempted, after Jesus Christ's death, to be carried into effect by his followers. They that believed had all things in common; they sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need; and they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart. ( Acts , Ch. II.) The practical application of the doctrines of strict justice to a state of society established in its contempt, was such as might have been expected. After the transitory glow of enthusiasm had faded from the minds of men, precedent and habit resumed their empire; they broke like an universal deluge on one shrinking and solitary island.
Men to whom birth had allotted ample possession looked with complacency on sumptuous apartments and luxurious food, and those ceremonials of delusive majesty which surround the throne of power and the court of wealth. Thesis Ppt? Men, from whom these things were withheld by their condition, began again to gaze with stupid envy on assay kit lonza pernicious splendour; and, by desiring the false greatness of another's state, to sacrifice the intrinsic dignity of their own. The demagogues of the infant republic of the Christian sect, attaining through eloquence or artifice, to influence amongst its members, first violated (under the pretence of watching over their integrity) the thesis writing, institutions established for the common and equal benefit of all. These demagogues artfully silenced the voice of the moral sense among them by engaging them to attend, not so much to the cultivation of a virtuous and happy life in risk, this mortal scene, as to the attainment of a fortunate condition after death; not so much to the consideration of proposal writing, those means by which the state of man is adorned and improved, as an inquiry into the secrets of the connexion between God and the world—things which, they well knew, were not to be explained, or even to be conceived. The system of equality which they established necessarily fell to the ground, because it is a system that must result from, rather than precede, the moral improvement of human kind. It was a circumstance of no moment that the first adherents of the system of Jesus Christ cast their property into a common stock. The same degree of real community of property could have subsisted without this formality, which served only to extend a temptation of dishonesty to the treasurers of ethics, so considerable a patrimony.
Every man, in proportion to his virtue, considers himself, with respect to the great community of mankind, as the steward and guardian of their interests in the property which he chances to possess. Every man, in proportion to his wisdom, sees the thesis writing ppt, manner in which it is his duty to employ the tolerance essay, resources which the writing, consent of jobs, mankind has intrusted to his discretion. Such is the thesis proposal writing ppt, [annihilation] of the unjust inequality of powers and conditions. existing in the world; and so gradually and inevitably is the progress of equality accommodated to the progress of wisdom and of virtue among mankind. Meanwhile, some benefit has not failed to endotoxin kit lonza, flow from the imperfect attempts which have been made to proposal writing, erect a system of equal rights to property and power upon the basis of arbitrary institutions. They have undoubtedly, in every case, from the instability of their foundation, failed. Still, they constitute a record of those epochs at which a trite sense of justice suggested itself to the understandings of men, so that they consented to forego all the cherished delights of engineering, luxury, all the habitual gratifications arising out of the possession or the expectation of thesis ppt, power, all the superstitions with which the accumulated authority of ages had made them dear and venerable. They are so many trophies erected in the enemy's land, to mark the limits of the travel writing jobs, victorious progress of truth and justice. No mistake is more to be deplored than the thesis writing ppt, conception that a system of morals and religion should derive any portion of its authority either from the circumstance of its novelty or its antiquity, that it should be judged excellent, not because it is reasonable or true, but because no person has ever thought of it before, or because it has been thought of from the beginning of time.
The vulgar mind delights to [abstract?] from the most useful maxims or institutions the trite reasons of their preferableness, and to accommodate to the loose inductions of their own indisciplinable minds. Thus mankind is governed by essay, precedents for actions which were never, or are no longer, useful and deluded by the pretensions of any bold impostor. Such has been, most unfortunately, the process of the writing ppt, human mind relatively to the doctrines of Jesus Christ. Their original promulgation was authorized by an appeal to zero tolerance essay, the antiquity of the institutions of Judaea; and in writing ppt, vindication of superstitious professing to be founded on them, it is asserted that nothing analogous to their tenor was ever before produced. The doctrines of Jesus Christ have scarcely the smallest resemblance to the Jewish law: nor have wisdom and benevolence and pity failed in whatsoever age of the world to generate such persuasions as those which are the basis of the moral system he announced. The most eminent philosophers of Greece had long been familiarized to the boldest and most sublime speculations on God, on the visible world, and on essay ethics the moral and intellectual Nature of Man. The universality and unity of God, the omnipotence of the mind of man, the equality of human beings and the duty of internal purity, is either asserted by Pythagoras, Plato, Diogenes, Zeno, and their followers, or may be directly inferred from their assertions.
Nothing would be gained by the establishment of the originality of Jesus Christ's doctrines but the proposal writing, casting a suspicion upon its practicability. Let us beware therefore what we admit lest, as some have made a trade of its imagined mysteries, we lose the inestimable advantages of its simplicity. Let us beware, if we love liberty and truth, if we loathe tyranny and imposture, if, imperfect ourselves, we still aspire to the freedom of internal purity, and tolerance, cherish the thesis writing, elevated hope that mankind may not be everlastingly condemned to the bondage of their own passions and the passions of their fellow beings, let us beware. An established religion turns to country risk dissertation, deathlike apathy the sublimest ebullitions of most exalted genius, and the spirit-stirring truths of a mind inflamed with the desire of benefiting mankind. It is the characteristic of ppt, a cold and tame spirit to imagine that such doctrines as Jesus Christ promulgated are destined to follow the fortunes and share the extinction of a popular religion. Forman's Editorial Preface: The Essay on Christianity was first given by Lady Shelley, in the Shelley Memorials (1859), where it is accompanied by the following note:—The reader will observe some unfinished sentences in the course of this Essay; but it has been thought advisable to print it exactly as it was found, with the exception of a few conjectural words inserted between brackets. Risk Dissertation? In this and other respects the text of the Memorials is here followed; but I have added from the St. James's Magazine for March, 1876, what appears to be a part of a recapitulation and thesis proposal writing, conclusion. It is essay, reasonable to writing ppt, think that this would have been further developed; but the final sentences are peculiarly weighty, and likely to be the conclusion of the whole matter. Mr.
Rossetti assigns this Essay, not very confidently, to the year 1815: if that be not the date, I should incline to place it a little later rather than earlier.—H.B.F. calculated——: It seems likely that it was a part of the management review of literature, scheme of this Essay to examine and illustrate the Beatitudes seriatim . The passage now printed as the conclusion of the Essay occupies a page and a half of a sheet of foolscap paper: on the other leaf of the sheet, and not continuously with the rest are written and cancelled the following passages:— I, the Redeemer of thesis writing ppt, mankind; I who dare to. Lament no more ye meek and gentle beings: bear on against the oppressions of the hard and unfeeling world—with resolute and tranquil mind; for in the calmness of your own spirit shall be your reward, and the. him: See Note on this subject, Vol. III, p. 312. Scythia: Jesus Christ foresaw what the poets retrospectively imagined. [Shelley's Note.] Jesus Christ did not.
It is at this point that the Essay ends in the Shelley Memorials . The rest is endotoxin kit lonza, from the St. James's Magazine . superstitions professing. Cancelled reading, a system professing to be founded on these doctrines . produced: Cancelled reading, Let us proceed to vindicate . law: There is another erasure here, The Philosophers of Greece, and their imitators, the Romans, bear. The: Cancelled reading, The doctrines were speculations of the most eminent, c. Plato: In the MS., The Platonists and Stoics is here struck out. practicability: Cancelled passage, It promises , and again, would persuade man not to thesis proposal writing ppt, be tyrant of man . liberty and truth: In the MS., our fellow men is here struck out in travel, favour of liberty and truth . It is the characteristic.
Cancelled reading, It is a cold and palsying tame thought . follow the fortunes: In the MS. the words share the fate originally stood here.